Bunch compressors
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Bunch compressors. ILC Accelerator School May 20 2006 Eun-San Kim Kyungpook National University Korea. Locations of bunch compressors in ILC. BCs locates between e - (e + ) damping rings and main linacs, and make bunch length reduce from 6 mm rms to 0.15 mm rms.

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Bunch compressors

Bunch compressors

ILC Accelerator School

May 20 2006

Eun-San Kim

Kyungpook National University

Korea


Locations of bunch compressors in ilc

Locations of bunch compressors in ILC

  • BCs locates between e- (e+) damping rings and main linacs, and

  • make bunch length reduce from 6 mm rms to 0.15 mm rms.

1st stage ILC : 500 GeV

2nd stage ILC : 1 TeV

- extension of main linac

- moving of SR and BC


Why we need bunch compressors

Why we need bunch compressors

  • Beams in damping rings has bunch length of 6 mm rms.

    - Such beams with long bunch length tend to reduce effects of

    beam instabilities in damping rings.

    - Thus, beams are compressed after the damping rings.

  • Main linac and IP in ILC require very short beams:

    - to prevent large energy spread in the linac due to the curvature of the rf.

    - to reduce the disruption parameter ( ~ sz) :

    (ratio of bunch length to strength of mutual focusing between colliding beams)

  • Thus, bunches between DRs and main linacs are shortened.

    - Required bunch length in ILC is 0.15 mm rms.


Main issues in bunch compressors

Main issues in bunch compressors

  • How can we produce such a beam with short bunch length?

  • How can we keep low emittance (ex/ey= 8mm / 20nm) and high charge (~3.2 nC) of the e- and e+ beams in bunch compression?

  • How large is the effects of incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation in bunch compression?


How to do bunch compression

How to do bunch compression

  • Beam compression can be achieved:

    (1) by introducing an energy-position correlation along the bunch with

    an RF section at zero-crossing of voltage

    (2) and passing beam through a region where path length isenergy dependent

    : this is generated by bending magnets to create dispersive regions.

DE/E

-z

Tail

(advance)

lower energy trajectory

Head (delay)

center energy trajectory

higher energy trajectory

  • To compress a bunch longitudinally, trajectory in dispersive region must be

  • shorter for tail of the bunch than it is for the head.


Consideration factors in bunch compressor design

Consideration factors in bunch compressor design

  • The compressor must reduce bunch from damping ring to appropriate size with acceptable emittance growth.

  • The system may perform a 90 degree longitudinal phase space rotation so that damping ring extracted phase errors do not translate into linac phase errors which can produce large final beam energy deviations.

  • The system should include tuning elements for corrections.

  • The compressor should be as short and error tolerant as possible.


Beam parameters in bunch compressors for ilc

Beam parameters in bunch compressors for ILC

  • beam energy : 5 GeV

  • rms initial horizontal emittance : 8 mm

  • rms initial vertical emittance : 20 nm

  • rms initial bunch length : 6 mm

  • rms final bunch length : 0.15 mm

  • compression ratio : 40

  • rms initial energy spread : 0.15 %

  • charge / bunch : 3.2 nC (N=2x1010)


Different types of bunch compressor

Different types of bunch compressor

Chicane

Double chicane

Chicanes as a Wiggler

Arc as a FODO-compressor


Different types of bunch compressor1

Different types of bunch compressor

  • Chicane : Simplest type with a 4-bending magnets for bunch

    compression.

  • Double chicane : Second chicane is weaker to compress higher charge density in order to minimize emittance growth due to synchrotron radiation.

  • Wiggler type : This type can be used when a large R56 is required, as in linear collider. It is also possible to locate quadrupole magnets between dipoles where dispersion passes through zero, allowing continuous focusing across the long systems.

  • Arc type : R56 can be adjusted by varying betatron phase advance per cell. The systems introduce large beamline geometry and need many well aligned components.


Path length in chicane

Path length in chicane

  • A path length difference for particles with a relative energy deviationd is given by:

  • Dz = hd = R56d + T566 d2 + U5666d3……

  • h : longitudinal dispersion

  • d : relative energy deviation (= DE/E)

  • R56 : linear longitudinal dispersion

  • (leading term for bunch compression)

  • T566 : second - order longitudinal dispersion

  • U5666 : third - order longitudinal dispersion


Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor

Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor

  • Longitudinal coordinates

    z : longitudinal position of a particle with respect to bunch center

  • Positive z means that particle is ahead of reference particle (z=0).

  • d : relative energy deviation

  • When a beam passes through a RF cavity on the zero crossing

  • of the voltage (i.e. without acceleration, frf=  p/2)

krf = 2p frf/c


Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor1

Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor

  • When reference particle crosses at some frf,

    reference energy of the beam is changed from Eo to E1.

    Initial (Ei) and final (Ef) energies of a given particle are

Then,


Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor2

Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor

To first order in eVrf/Eo << 1,

In a linear approximation for RF,


Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor3

Longitudinal particle motion in bunch compressor

In a wiggler (or chicane),

In a linear approximation R56 >> T566d1,

Total transformation

For frf=  p/2, R66=1, the transformation matrix is sympletic,

which means that longitudinal emittance is a conserved quantitiy.


Bunch compressors

A simple case of4-bending magnet chicane

  • Zeuthen Chicane : a benchmark layout used for CSR calculation comparisons at 2002 ICFA beam dynamics workshop

B2

B3

qo

B1

B4

DL

LB

DL

DLc

LB

  • Bend magnet length : LB = 0.5m

  • Drift length B1-B2 and B3-B4(projected) : DL = 5 m

  • Drift length B2-B3 : DLc = 1 m

  • Bend radius : r = 10.3 m

  • Effective total chicane length : (LT-DLc) = 12 m

  • Bending angle : qo = 2.77 deg Bunch charge : q = 1nC

  • Momentum compaction : R56 = -25 mm Electron energy : E = 5 GeV

  • 2nd order momentum compaction : T566 = 38 mm Initial bunch length : 0.2 mm

  • Total projected length of chicane : LT = 13 m Final bunch length : 0.02 mm


Bunch compressors

Relations among R56, T566 and U5666 in Chicane

q

b

a

a

If a particle at reference energy is bent by qo, a particle with relative energy error d is bent by q = qo/ (1+d).

Path length from first to final bending magnets is


Bunch compressors

Relations among R56, T566 and U5666 in Chicane

Difference in path length due to relative energy error is

By performing a Taylor expansion about d = 0

For large d, d2 and d3 terms may cause non-linear deformations of the

phase space during compression.


Momentum compaction

Momentum compaction

  • The momentum compaction R56 of a chicane made up of rectangular bend magnets is negative (for bunch head at z<0).

  • The required R56 is determined from the desired compression, energy spread and rf phase.

    First-order path length dependence is

  • From the conservation of longitudinal emittance,

    final bunch lengthis


Rf phase angle

RF phase angle

  • Energy-position correlation from an rf section is

  • In general case that beam passes through RF away zero-

    crossing of voltage, that is R66 = 1, there is some damping

    (or antidamping) of the longitudinal phase space,

    associated with acceleration (or deceleration).


Synchrotron radiation

Synchrotron Radiation

  • Incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) is the result of individual electrons that randomly emit photons.

    Radiation power P ~ N

    (N : number of electrons in a bunch)

  • Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is produced when a group of electrons collectively emit photons in phase. This can occur when bunch length is shorter than radiation wavelength.

    Radiation power P ~ N2

  • ISR and CSR may increase beam emittance in bunch compressors with shorter bunch length than the damping rings.


Coherent synchrotron radiation

Coherent synchrotron radiation

  • Opposite to the well known collective effects where the wake-fields produced by head particles act on the particles behind, radiation fields generated at tail overtake the head of the bunch when bunch moves along a curved trajectory.

  • CSR longitudinal wake function is

lr

sz

Lo

R

Coherent radiation forlr > sz

q

R=Lo/q

Overtaking length : Lo (24 sz R2)1/3


Coherent synchrotron radiation1

Coherent synchrotron radiation

  • CSR-induced relative energy spread per dipole for a Gaussian bunch is

  • This is valid for a dipole magnet where radiation shielding of a conducting vacuum chamber is not significant, that is, for a full vacuum chamber height h which satisfies

    h  (psz√R)2/3  hc.

  • Typically the value of h required to shield CSR effects (to cutoff low frequency components of the radiated field) is too small to allow an adequate beam aperture

    (for R  2.5 m, h « 10 mm will shield a 190 mm bunch.)

  • With very small apertures, resistive wakefields can also generate emittance dilution.


Bunch compressors

Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation

When an electron emits a photon of energy u, the change in the betatron action

is given by

H=bxh'2+2axhh'+gxh2

  • Transverse emittance growth is

  • Increase of energy spread is

  • The increase in energy spread is given by:

  • Beamenergy loss is

Cq=3.84x10-13m


Bunch compressors for ilc

Bunch compressors for ILC

  • Two-stages of bunch compression were adopted to achieve σz = 0.15 mm.

  • Compared to single-stage BC, two-stage system provides reduced emittance growth.

  • The two-stage BC is used : (1) to limit the maximum energy spread in the beam (2) to get large transverse tolerances (3) to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation

    that is produced


Designed types of bunch compressors for ilc

Designed types of bunch compressors for ILC

  • A wiggler type that has a wiggler section made up of 12 periods each with 8 bending magnets and 2 quadrupoles at each zero crossing of the dispersion function : baseline design (SLAC)

  • A chicane type that produces necessary momentum compaction with a chicane made of 4 bending magnets :alternative design (E.-S. Kim)


Bunch compressors

Baseline design for ILC BC

A wiggler based on a chicane between each pair of quadrupoles

Each chicane contains 8 bend magnets (12 chicanes total).


Bunch compressors

Baseline design for ILC BC

BC2 RF

BC1 RF

BC1 Wiggler

BC1 Wiggler


Baseline design for ilc bc

Baseline design for ILC BC

  • First stage BC

    - contains 24 9-cell RF cavities arranged in 3 cryomodules.

    - Because the bunch is long, relatively strong focusing is used to limit emittance growth from transverse wakefields.

  • Second stage BC

    - contains 456 9-cell RF cavities arranged in 57 cryomodules.

    - A wiggler has optics identical to the wiggler in the first BC, but with weaker wiggler.


Bunch compressors

Parameters of baseline design


Bunch compressors

Alternative design for ILC BC

 Main linac

Matching

Chicane 1

Quadrupoles

Chicane 2

RF section


Bunch compressors

Parameters of alternative design


Bunch compressors

Bunch compressors for ILC


Bunch compressors

Summary

  • Compared to single-stage BC, two-stage BC system provides reduced emittance growth at σz = 0.15 mm.

  • Two stage system can be tuned to ease transverse tolerances.

  • Two stage system is longer than one-stage system.

    • A shorter 2-stage may be also possible.


Bunch compressors

Problems

  • Show that emittance growth and increase of energy spread due to incoherent synchrotron radiation are given by

    1)

2)


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