Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 34

Electrophoresis and its Application for diagnosis PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 786 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Clin. Chem 202. Electrophoresis and its Application for diagnosis. Ratchada Cressey, PhD. Principal of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is the process of moving charged molecule in solution by applying an electric field across the mixture. + -. Electrode. - + . + -. + + .

Download Presentation

Electrophoresis and its Application for diagnosis

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

Clin. Chem 202

Electrophoresis and its Application for diagnosis

Ratchada Cressey, PhD


Principal of electrophoresis

Principal of electrophoresis

  • Electrophoresis is the process of moving charged molecule in solution by applying an electric field across the mixture

+ -

Electrode

- +

+ -

+ +

+

+ +

- -

-

- -


Serum protein electrophoresis spe

Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPE)

  • Electrophoresis is refer to the migration of all charged solutes or particle in liquid medium under influence of an electric field


Serum protein electrophoresis

Serum Protein Electrophoresis


Spe procedure

SPE procedure

  • Sample preparation

  • Gel loading

  • Gel running

  • Protein staining

  • quantification


Procedure i membrane and sample preparation

Procedure (i)Membrane and Sample preparation


Procedure ii sample application and electrophores

Procedure (ii)sample application and electrophores


Separated protein bands can be quantified using densitometer

Separated protein bands can be quantified using Densitometer


Densitometer is one of the application of spectrophotometer

Densitometer is one of the application of spectrophotometer

  • Absorbance measurement is made through a solid material,using support medium is the cuvet

  • Accuracy and precision are limited by variations in path length and scatter from the solid medium


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • Normal SPE

    • Albumin47-71% (3.63-4.91 g/dL)

    • Alpha-1 globulin2.7-5.8% (0.11-0.35 g/dL)

    • Alpha-2 globulin5.1-12.0% (0.65-1.17 g/dL)

    • Beta- globulin4.5-15.7% (0.74-1.26 g/dL)

    • Gamma globulin11.3-24.0% (0.58-1.74 g/dL)


Clinical significance of albumin

Clinical Significance of Albumin

  • Reference range 3.5-5.5 g/dL

  • Hyperalbuminemiadehydration

  • Hypoalbuminemia

    • Low intake, synthesis

    • Increase loss:

      • kidney; nephrotic syndrome, wound, burn

      • GI tract; protein-losing enteropathy

    • Increase catabolism


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

Clinical Significance of a1-globulin

  • Increased alpha 1 globulin due to increased alpha 1 antitrypsin: inflammatory/acute phase

  • Decreased/absent alpha1 globulin due to alpha1antitrypsin deficiency: infant with neonatal cirrhosis or child with emphysema


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

Clinical Significance of a2-globulin

  • Increased alpha 2 globulin due to alpha 2 macroglobulin: nephrotic sx with peripheral edema, membranous glomerulonephritis, hyperlipidemia

  • Decreased alpha 2 globulin due to haptoglobin: hemolytic anemia with spherocytes in PB


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

Clinical Significance of b-globulin

  • Increased beta globulin due to increased transferrin in iron deficiency anemia: microcytic hypochromic RBCs; third trimester of pregnancy

  • Increased beta-gamma with bridging: cirrhosis


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

Clinical Significance of g-globulin


Monoclonal gammopathy

MONOCLONAL GAMMOPATHY

  • Monoclonal peak: narrow needle-shaped “spike”

  • With plasma cell myeloma (IgG,IgA) or IgM type in LPL lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma

  • In gamma region usually IgG

  • In gamma, beta or even alpha 2 globulin region, usually IgA

  • If at application point between beta & gamma regions, IgM type


Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia

POLYCLONAL HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA

  • Caused by reactive processes

  • Broad asymmetric peak

  • Chronic infection including HIV+/AIDS

  • Autoimmune/collagen vascular disease: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

  • Liver disease


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • The nephrotic pattern

    • illustrates the long term loss of lower molecular weight proteins (Examples: albumin, IgG) and retention of higher molecular weight proteins (example alpha-2-macroglobulin)

    • This patient was a 39 year old female with SLE. Her daily total urinary protein loss exceeded 3700 mg. (Normal loss is less that 150 mg/day.)

Normal

http://erl.pathology.iupui.edu/labmed/Generator.cfm?Image=SPE


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • Polyclonal gammopathy

    • usually occurs secondary to many chronic diseases. This patient was a 39 year old male with sarcordosis. The sequential increase of the globulin fractions illustrated "sarcoid stepping." IFE excluded the possibility of a monoclonal protein.

Normal

http://erl.pathology.iupui.edu/labmed/Generator.cfm?Image=SPE


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • Liver disease:

    • Patient was a 46 year old male with end stage liver disease secondary to chronic alcohol abuse. He died 5 months after this sample was obtained.

    • In the cirrhotic pattern, the distinction between beta and gamma globulin is blurred and is sometimes referred to as the "beta-gamma bridge" pattern.

Normal

http://erl.pathology.iupui.edu/labmed/Generator.cfm?Image=SPE


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • Acute inflammatory pattern

    • This patient was a 42 year old female who presented with a temperature of 40 degrees oC and was diagnosed with both pneumonia and pyelonephritis.

    • In the acute inflammatory pattern albumin and gamma globulin are decreased and alpha-2-globulin becomes very prominent. In both the strip and scan note that the intensity of the alpha-2 fraction is greater that the gamma globulin fraction.

Normal

http://erl.pathology.iupui.edu/labmed/Generator.cfm?Image=SPE


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • Alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency

    • can be congenital or acquired, typically secondary to liver or pulmonary diseases.

    • Congenital alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency is most commonly associated with early onset emphysema, pancreatic insufficiency, or cirrhosis.

Normal

http://erl.pathology.iupui.edu/labmed/Generator.cfm?Image=SPE


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE)

  • Immunofixation (IFIX) is a powerful enhancement of immunoelectrophoresis in which a series of post-electrophoretic gel slabs are layered with cellulose-acetate gels saturated with specific antibodies.

  • The resulting antigen-antibody complexes fixed on the second gel may then be stained, allowing sensitive and specific qualitative visual identification of paraproteins by electrophoretic position.


Immunofixation electrophoresis ife

Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE)

  • Diluted patient serum is applied to each track of the gel using an application mask.

  • The gel is electrophoresed, separating proteins according to their charge.

  • Protein fixative and monospecific antisera to IgG, IgA, IgM, Kappa and Lambda are applied to the gel.

  • During incubation, insoluble immune complexes are formed.

  • The gel is now washed, pressed, dried, and stained.

  • Samples are examined for paraprotein bands in the TSP and Ig tracks


Ife of serum

IFE of serum


Ife of urine

IFE of Urine


Samples required for ife

Samples required for IFE

  • 100 mL aliquot of 24 hour urine

    • No preservative required. Random urine will be accepted, but not a recommended specimen due to low protein content.

  • 0.5 mL serum


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • Monoclonalprotein present

    • The patient was a 72 year old male who presented with lower back pain.

    • Quantitative immunoglobulin measurements showed a large increase in serum IgG, but decreased IgA and IgM. Bone marrow exam revealed a large increase in plasma cells that were frequently aggregated.

    • IFE on this patient's serum showed the M protein was IgG kappa. A diagnosis of multiple myeloma was made.

http://erl.pathology.iupui.edu/labmed/Generator.cfm?Image=SPE


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

  • Biclonal gammopathy

    • This sample is from a 62 year old male who presented with weight loss and fatigue. He was found to have multiple myeloma.

    • In this disease, biclonal gammopathies are rare, occurring in about 1.7 % of patients. IFE showed the 2 M proteins to be IgG-k and IgA-lambda

http://erl.pathology.iupui.edu/labmed/Generator.cfm?Image=SPE


Electrophoresis of urine

Electrophoresis of Urine

  • a minimum of 10 ml of urine for electrophoresis.

  • Most urine samples require concentration to obtain this minimum amount and for optimal concentration,

  • Electrophoresis on urine is the preferred technique for identification of Bence Jones proteins in patients with suspected multiple myeloma.

  • It should always be done in conjunction with serum, so the results can be compared directly.


Electrophoresis of urine1

Electrophoresis of Urine

Normal Range

Urine Total Protein ( < 140 mg/24hr )

Urine Albumin( < 30 mg/24hr )


Electrophoresis and its application for diagnosis

Thank you


  • Login