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CHAPTER 2. Describing Instructional Models for Physical Education. Advantages of Using Model-Based Instruction in PE. Provides an overall plan and coherent approach to teaching and learning Clarifies learning domain priorities and domain interactions Provides an instructional theme

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CHAPTER 2

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Chapter 2 l.jpg

CHAPTER 2

Describing Instructional Models for Physical Education


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Advantages of Using Model-Based Instruction in PE

  • Provides an overall plan and coherent approach to teaching and learning

  • Clarifies learning domain priorities and domain interactions

  • Provides an instructional theme

  • Allows teacher and students to understand current and upcoming events

  • Furnishes a unified theoretical framework

    (continued)


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Advantages of Using Model-Based Instruction (continued)

  • Has research support

  • Promotes a technical language for teachers

  • Verifies the relationship between instruction and learning

  • Allows for more valid assessments

  • Encourages teacher decision making

  • Promotes specific standards and learning outcomes


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Teaching and

+ Learning Features

Implementation Needs

+ and Modifications

Foundations

Model

Theory and rationale

Assumptions about teaching and learning

A theme

Learning domain priorities and interactions

Student developmental requirements

Validation

Directness and inclusiveness

Learning tasks

Engagement patterns

Teacher and student roles and responsibilities

Verification of instructional processes

Assessment of learning

Teacher expertise

Key teaching skills

Contextual requirements

Contextual modifications

Direct Instruction

Personalized System for Instruction

Cooperative Learning

Sport Education

Peer Teaching

Inquiry Teaching

Tactical Games

Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility

Framework for Describing the Models


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Foundations of the Models

  • Theory and rationale

  • Assumptions about teaching and learning

  • Theme

  • Learning priorities and interactions

  • Student developmental requirements

  • Validation


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Learning Domains

  • Each model emphasizes different kinds of learning outcomes

  • Outcomes should match the teacher’s instructional goals

  • Models are based on learning domain goals:

    • Cognitive

    • Psychomotor

    • Affective


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Examples of Developmentally Inappropriate and Appropriate Practices

  • Comprehension of information

    • Inappropriate: Teacher uses words, terms that students don’t know

    • Appropriate: Teacher uses only familiar words and terms when talking to students

  • Decision making and responsibility

    • Inappropriate: Students are expected to pick “fair” teams but cannot do so

    • Appropriate: Teacher selects teams before class

      (continued)


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Developmentally Inappropriate and Appropriate Practices (continued)

  • Social/emotional maturity

    • Inappropriate: Immature students are placed in tasks that provide an opportunity to cheat

    • Appropriate: Teacher gives students rules to follow and monitors students’ progress

  • Prerequisite knowledge and ability

    • Inappropriate: Teacher assumes all students have experience with the content

    • Appropriate: Teacher conducts a needs assessment before the unit begins


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Student Learning Preferences

Different models use differing teaching strategies and appeal to different types of students:

  • Collaborative students

  • Competitive students

  • Participant students

  • Avoidant students

  • Independent students

  • Dependent students


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Validation of Models

  • Research knowledge

    • optimal ways to use a model

  • Craft knowledge

    • derived from teachers’ experiences with models

  • Intuitive knowledge

    • sometimes a model “just makes sense”


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Teaching and Learning Features of the Models

  • Directness and inclusiveness

  • Learning tasks

  • Engagement patterns

  • Teacher and student roles and responsibilities

  • Verification of instructional processes

  • Assessment of learning


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Profile of a Model’s Directness or Indirectness


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Learning Tasks—What Will Be Learned and How

  • Task presentation

  • Task structure

  • Content progression


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Engagement Patterns

  • Active or passive

  • Individual, small group, or whole class


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Benchmarks

  • Patterns of teacher and student operations that should happen when using a model

  • Reminders to teachers of how to teach and how students will learn in that model

  • Verification of proper planning and instructional operations


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Assessment of Learning

  • What standards or learning outcomes will be assessed?

  • When will they be assessed?

  • What assessment techniques are valid?

  • Is the assessment procedure practical?

  • Can the outcomes be assessed with authentic techniques?


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Implementation Needs and Modifications of the Models

  • Teacher expertise

  • Key teaching skills

  • Contextual requirements

  • Contextual modifications


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Process for Selecting an Instructional Model

  • What do I want my students to learn?

  • What are my domain priorities?

  • Which models have those same priorities?

  • What are the contextual requirements?

  • How well does my context meet those requirements?

    (continued)


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Process for Selecting an Instructional Model (continued)

  • What are the teacher and student prerequisites for the remaining models?

  • Do I and my students have enough of those prerequisites?

  • What modifications will I need to make for each model?


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  • Questions?

  • Issues and/ or concerns…

  • Comments!!!


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