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THE JAPANESE EMPIRE. COMMODORE PERRY AND THE BLACK SHIPS. US sends Commodore Matthew Perry and a small fleet to open Japan to trade and diplomatic relations In 1854. Creates tumultuous period of change in Japanese society. MEIJI RESTORATION - 1868.

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Commodore perry and the black ships
COMMODORE PERRY AND THE BLACK SHIPS

  • US sends Commodore Matthew Perry and a small fleet to open Japan to trade and diplomatic relations

  • In 1854.

  • Creates tumultuous period of change in Japanese society


Meiji restoration 1868
MEIJI RESTORATION - 1868

  • Young emperor takes over; ends era of shoguns

  • Embarks on rapid modernization of all facets of Japanese life.


Japan s models for modernization
JAPAN’S MODELS FOR MODERNIZATION

  • Emissaries sent out to West to find best ways to do things:

  • Britain: navy

  • U.S.: factories and technology, education

  • Germany: government




Sino japanese war 1895
SINO-JAPANESE WAR - 1895

  • Japan decisively defeats China; gains concessions in Manchuria


Russo japanese war 1905
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR - 1905

  • Japan and Russia in conflict over influence in Korea and Manchuria. Japan claims Korea.


Russo japanese war
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

  • Japan launches a surprise attack on a Russian concession in Manchuria


Battle of tsushima strait
Battle of Tsushima Strait

  • Japanese fleet destroys Russian Pacific fleet in two hours.


Japan and korea taiwan
JAPAN AND KOREA & TAIWAN

  • Japan makes Korea and Taiwan full colonies of its empire.


Treaty of portsmouth
TREATY OF PORTSMOUTH

  • US President Theodore Roosevelt mediates.


1920s rise of militarism
1920s RISE OF MILITARISM

  • Japan feels cheated after World War I.

  • New emperor – Hirohito

  • Rise of fanatic nationalists and military societies


Emperor hirohito
EMPEROR HIROHITO

  • Fanatical loyalty to emperor



Step 2 invasion of china 1937
STEP 2 – INVASION OF CHINA 1937

  • Japan invades China; begins conquest

  • Greatly angers US.

  • First step toward World War II in Asia.


Japanese atrocities
JAPANESE ATROCITIES

  • RAPE OF NANJING



Japan as an axis power
JAPAN AS AN AXIS POWER

  • Joins Germany and Italy in 1938



Unit 731
UNIT 731

  • Cruel and barbaric medical experiments on Chinese prisoners and peasants

  • Developed germ warfare weapons

  • Doctors never punished




Japanese victories 1942
JAPANESE VICTORIES - 1942

  • Surprise attack worked against Russia in 1905.

  • Japan needed to neutralize American fleet in order to take over Southeast Asia with its resources.

  • Philippines, Indochina, Indonesia, Malaya all fall.

  • Singapore is worst defeat ever suffered by British Army. 150,000 prisoners taken by Japanese.



American bombing
AMERICAN BOMBING

  • All but four major Japanese cities bombed, incl. Tokyo. Many are fire-bombed, many civilians killed.

  • Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki finally forces unconditional surrender of Japan

  • Reluctance to surrender unconditionally for fear of losing emperor, also loyalty and honor.



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