School Principals and Inclusion: Views, Practices and Possible Signs of Burnout. October, 2007 Ludwigsburg, Germany Gilada Avissar, Ph.D. [email protected] Two assumptions underlie this presentation:
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School Principals and Inclusion: Views, Practices and Possible Signs of Burnout
Gilada Avissar, Ph.D.
Two assumptions underlie this presentation:
Searching large electronic data bases (in English) for studies of principals in connection with mainstreaming or inclusion yielded poor results. Relatively few empirical studies have been reported on the subject. As for possible burnout of principals with regard to mainstreaming and inclusion, searches yielded no results.
During the 2006/2007 school-year, there were 1,755,262 pupils in the Israeli education system. Special education services are provided to approximately 10% of the pupils, with 2% attending special facilities i.e. special schools and special classes within regular schools, while 8% are included in regular classrooms.
The Israeli Special Education Law of 1988 and the amendments that followed, reflect a commitment to placing children in the least restrictive environment. This commitment emphasizes the importance of providing support for pupils' special educational needs within regular education settings.
A three part Questionnaire for Principals (QP).
Part I - The School’s Profile
Part II. – The Practices of Inclusion:
(a) a scale containing 17 statements about inclusive practices; (b) Six different vignettes, each describing a case study based on a true story. The first part described the problem and the second offered an educational/school solution.
Part III. Background information and personal data
"One of the most widespread causes for stress in schools in Israel is the present policy of mainstreaming”. (Reiter, 1996)
The lead questions was: "Please tell me about the implementation of inclusion in your school". Two additional questions were: (1) "What are the difficulties encountered with regard to implementing inclusion?" and (2) "What percentage of your daily work has to do with it?".
"Too many meetings, too much paper work, not enough hours to go around to cater to the needs and a supervisor who interferes with our decision making processes".
"Almost 50% to 80% of my time during the first 3 months of the school year and than again during the last two months of the school year is spent on implementing inclusion. During the rest of the school year it is 25%-30% of the time".
Signs of burnout:
Thanks for your attention!