Baseline Vital Signs. Baseline Vital Signs. • Key signs used to evaluate a patient’s condition • First set is known as baseline vitals • Repeated vital signs compared to the baseline • Need at least 2 sets of vitals to show trending. Baseline Vital Signs. PRBELLS Pulse Respiration
• Key signs used to evaluate a patient’s condition
• First set is known as baseline vitals
• Repeated vital signs compared to the baseline
• Need at least 2 sets of vitals to show trending
– Number of beats in 30 seconds x 2
– Number of beats in 15 seconds x 4
– Regular or irregular
– Bounding, strong, or weak (thready)
Adults 60 to 100 beats/min
Children 70 to 150 beats/min
Infants 100 to 160 beats/min
Fast = Tachycardia - over 100 in adults
Slow= Bradycardia - under 60 in adults
– Normal or
• Noisy respiration
– Normal, stridor,
– Shallow or deep
– Number of breaths
in 30 seconds x 2
– Regular or irregular
– Character of
Adults 12 to 20 breaths/min
Children 15 to 30 breaths/min
Infants 25 to 50 breaths/min
• Bradypnea= slow breathing
• Tachypnea= fast breathing
• Eupnea= normal breathing
• A drop in blood pressure may indicate:
– Loss of blood
– Loss of vascular tone
– Cardiac pumping problem
– Pressure during relaxing phase of the heart’s cycle
– Pressure during contraction
• Measured as millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
• Recorded as systolic/diastolic
1. Place cuff on patient’s arm.
2. Palpate brachial artery and place stethoscope.
3. Inflate cuff until you no longer hear pulse sounds.
4. Continue pumping to increase pressure by an additional 20 mm Hg.
5. Note the systolic and diastolic pressures as
6. you let air escape slowly.
7. Korotkoff Sounds
8. 1st beat you hear is systolic
9. Last beat you hear is diastolic
10.As soon as pulse sounds stop, open the valve and release the air quickly.
Infants (newborn to 1 year) 50 to 95(systolic)
Children (1 to 8 years) 80 to 110 mm Hg
Adults 90 to 140 mm Hg
• P - Pupils
• E - Equal
• A - And
• R - Round
• R - Regular in size
• L - React to Light
• Fixed with no reaction to light
• Dilate with light and constrict without
light…that’s a brain problem!
• React sluggishly
• Unequal in size
• Unequal with light or when light is
Name? Date? Place? Problem?
Types of Lung Sounds
O - Onset
When & How did the symptom begin?
P - Provokes/Palliates
What makes the symptom worse?
What makes the symptom better?
Q - Quality
R - Region/Radiation
S - Severity
Are you taking any?
When did you last take your medication?
What are they?
What are they for?
May I see them?
May we take them with us?
Food and/or Drink?