Exploring marketing research william g zikmund
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Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund. Chapter 7: Secondary Data Research in a Digital Age . Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project Is often: Historical Already assembled Needs no access to subjects.

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Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

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ExploringMarketing ResearchWilliam G. Zikmund

Chapter 7:

Secondary Data

Research in a Digital Age


Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project

Is often:

Historical

Already assembled

Needs no access to subjects

Secondary Data


Advantages of Secondary Data

  • Inexpensive

  • Obtained Rapidly

  • Information is not Otherwise Accessible


Government data is often free


Disadvantages of Secondary Data

  • Uncertain Accuracy

  • Data Not Consistent with Needs

  • Inappropriate Units of Measurement

  • Time Period Inappropriate (Dated)


Secondary Data may be Dated

The Economic Census profiles the U.S. economy every 5 years, from the national to the local level.


Evaluating Secondary Data

Does the data help to

answer questions

set out in the

problem definition?

Applicability

to project

objectives

Does the data apply to

the time period of

interest?

Does the data apply to

the population of

interest?


Evaluating Secondary Data (continued)

Do the other terms

and variable

classifications

presented apply?

Applicability

to project

objectives

Are the units of

measurement

comparable?

If possible, go to the

original source of the

data?

Accuracy

of the data


Is the cost of data

acquisition worth it?

Accuracy

of the data

Is there a possibility

of bias?

Can the accuracy of

data collection be

verified?


Objectives for Secondary Data Studies

  • Fact Finding

  • Model Building

  • Data Based Marketing


Common Research Objectives

for Secondary Data Studies

Fact Finding- Identifying consumption patterns

- Tracking trends

Model building- Estimating market potential

- Forecasting sales

- Selecting trade areas and sites

Data Base Marketing- Development of Prospect Lists

- Enhancement of Customer Lists


Fact Finding

  • Identify Consumer Behavior

  • Trend Analysis

  • Environmental Scanning


Market Potential

Forecasting Sales

Analysis of Trade Areas

Model Building


Practice of maintaining a customer data base

Names

Addresses

Past purchases

Responses to past efforts

Data from numerous sources

Data Based Marketing


Internal Data

  • Internal and Proprietary data is more descriptive

  • Accounting information

  • Sales information

  • Backorders

  • Customer complaints


Data Mining

Dig through volumes of data to discover

Patterns about an organization's customers

And products.


Government

Newspapers

Journals

Trade Associations

Libraries

Internet

Vendors

Government Sources

Books and Periodicals

External Data


Popular Addresses


Traditional Distribution

Indirect Channel Using Intermediary

Information Producer

(Federal Government)

Library

(Storage of

government

documents

and books)

Company User


Traditional Distribution

Direct Channel

Information Producer

(Federal Government)

Company User


Direct, Computerized Distribution Using Intermediary

Information producer’s

(Just-in-time inventory partner)

computerized database

Company user


Modern Distribution of Secondary Data

Information producer B

(Grocery store-retail

scanner data)

Information producer C

(Audience research company-

television viewing data)

Information producer A

(Federal government-

census data)

Vendor/external

distributor

(Computerized database

integrating all three data

sources for any

geographic area)

Information producer A

(Federal government-

census data)


Created, recorded, or generated by an entity other than the researcher’s organization

Government

Trade associations

Newspapers and journals

External Data


Libraries

The Internet

Vendors

Producers

Books and Periodicals

External Data


Government sources

Media sources

Commercial sources

External Data


Government Sources


Market share data companies like A.C. Nielsen provide information about sales volume and brand share over time

Demographic and census updates—many organizations supply census updates, in easy-to-use or custom formats

Commercial Sources


Attitude and public opinion research—syndicated services report the findings of opinion polls

Consumption and purchase behavior data

Advertising research—readership and audience data

Commercial Sources


Diverse types of data offered from a single source

- e.g., television viewing and scanner purchase data

- e.g., Prizim and ClusterPlus

Single Source Data


Typical limitations

Additional pitfalls

Unavailable

Questionable accuracy

Lack of standardized terminology

Global Secondary Data


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