Exploring marketing research william g zikmund
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Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund. Chapter 9: Survey Research: Basic Communication Methods. Surveys as a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning. Surveys. Personal Interviews Door-to-Door Shopping Mall Intercepts Telephone Interviews

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Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

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Exploring Marketing ResearchWilliam G. Zikmund

Chapter 9:

Survey Research:

Basic Communication Methods


Surveys as a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning

Surveys


Personal Interviews

Door-to-Door

Shopping Mall Intercepts

Telephone Interviews

Self-Administered Questionnaires

Communicating with Respondents


Personal Interviews

  • Gathering of information from face-to-face contact.

  • Direct communication between businesses and consumers in which interviewers ask respondents questions.


Opportunity for feedback

Probing

Length of Interview

Telephone -10 minutes

Mail - 6 pages

Personal Interview 1 ½ hours

Completeness of Interview

Use of Props and Visual Aids

High Participation Rate

Advantages of Personal Interviews


Not anonymous

Interviewer influence

Anonymity of Respondents

Cost

Disadvantages ofPersonal Interviews


Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Speed of Data CollectionModerate to fast

Geographical FlexibilityLimited to moderate

Respondent CooperationExcellent

Versatility of QuestioningQuite versatile


Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Questionnaire LengthLong

Item NonresponseLow

Possibility of RespondentLowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of InterviewerHigh

Influence of Answer

Supervision of InterviewersModerate


Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Anonymity of RespondentLow

Ease of Call Back or Follow-upDifficult

CostHighest

Special FeaturesVisual materials may be

shown or demonstrated;

extended probing possible


Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Speed of Data Collection Fast

Geographical Flexibility Confined, urban bias

Respondent Cooperation Moderate to low

Versatility of Questioning Extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length Moderate to Long


Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Item Nonresponse Medium

Possibility of Respondent Lowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer Highest

Influence of Answers

Supervision of Interviewers Moderate to high


Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Anonymity of Respondent Low

Ease of Call Back or Difficult

Follow-up

Cost Moderate to high

Special Features Taste test, viewing

of TV Commercials

possible


Telephone Surveys


Telephone Surveys

Speed of Data CollectionVery fast

Geographical FlexibilityHigh

Respondent CooperationGood

Versatility of QuestioningModerate


Telephone Surveys

Questionnaire LengthModerate

Item NonresponseMedium

Possibility of RespondentAverage

Misunderstanding

Degree of InterviewerModerate

Influence of Answer

Supervision of InterviewersHigh, especially with central location WATS interviewing


Telephone Surveys

Anonymity of RespondentModerate

Ease of Call Back or Follow-upEasy

CostLow to moderate 25% of the cost of door-to-door

door-to-door interviews

Special FeaturesFieldwork and supervision

of data collection are

simplified; quite adaptable

to computer technology


Central Location Interviewing

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing

Computerized Voice-Activated Interviews

Telephone Surveys


Sacramento, CA

Oakland, CA

Fresno, CA

Los Angles/Long Beach, CA

Most Unlisted Markets


Mail Surveys


Mail Survey

Speed of Data CollectionResearcher has no control

over return of questionnaire; slow

Geographical FlexibilityHigh

Respondent CooperationModerate--poorly designed

questionnaire will have low response rate

Versatility of QuestioningHighly standardized format


Mail Survey

Questionnaire LengthVaries depending on incentive

Item NonresponseHigh

Possibility of RespondentHighest--no interviewer

Misunderstandingpresent for clarification

Degree of InterviewerNone--interviewer absent

Influence of Answer

Supervision of InterviewersNot applicable


Mail Survey

Anonymity of RespondentHigh

Ease of Call Back or Follow-upEasy, but takes time

CostLowest


How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys

  • Write a “Sales Oriented” Cover Letter

  • Money Helps

  • - As a token of appreciation

  • - For a charity

  • Stimulate Respondents’ Interest with Interesting Questions

  • Follow Up

  • - Keying questionnaires with codes

  • Advanced Notification

  • Sponsorship by a Well-known and Prestigious Institution


Increasing Response Rates

  • Effective Cover Letter

  • Money Helps

  • Interesting Questions

  • Follow-Ups

  • Advanced Notification

  • Survey Sponsorship

  • Keying Questionnaires


Mail

Place of Business

Drop-Off

Computerized

E-mail

Internet

Other Variations

Self-Administered Questionnaires


Speed of Data Collection

Instantaneous

Geographic Flexibility

worldwide

Respondent Cooperation

varies depending on web site

Internet Surveys


Versatility of questioning

extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length

modest

Item Nonresponse

software can assure none

Internet Surveys


Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding

high

Interviewer Influence of Answers

none

Supervision of Interviewersnone

Internet Surveys


Anonymity of Respondent

Respondent can be anonymous or known

Ease of Callback or Follow-up

difficult

Cost

low

Special Features

allows graphics and motion

Internet Surveys


Item Nonresponsesoftware can assure none

Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding

high

Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answers

none

Supervision of Interviewers

none

Internet Surveys


Anonymity of Respondent

Respondent can be anonymous or known

Ease of Callback or Follow-up

difficult

Cost

low

Special Features

allows graphics and motion

Internet Surveys


There is no best form of survey; each has advantages and disadvantages.


Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?

Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated?

Will cooperation be easily attained?

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique:


How quickly is the information needed?

Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire?

How large is the budget?

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique:


A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design

Pretesting


“Practice is the best of all instructors.”Publius Syrus


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