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Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund. Chapter 9: Survey Research: Basic Communication Methods. Surveys as a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning. Surveys. Personal Interviews Door-to-Door Shopping Mall Intercepts Telephone Interviews

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exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Exploring Marketing ResearchWilliam G. Zikmund

Chapter 9:

Survey Research:

Basic Communication Methods

communicating with respondents
Personal Interviews

Door-to-Door

Shopping Mall Intercepts

Telephone Interviews

Self-Administered Questionnaires

Communicating with Respondents
personal interviews
Personal Interviews
  • Gathering of information from face-to-face contact.
  • Direct communication between businesses and consumers in which interviewers ask respondents questions.
advantages of personal interviews
Opportunity for feedback

Probing

Length of Interview

Telephone -10 minutes

Mail - 6 pages

Personal Interview 1 ½ hours

Completeness of Interview

Use of Props and Visual Aids

High Participation Rate

Advantages of Personal Interviews
disadvantages of personal interviews
Not anonymous

Interviewer influence

Anonymity of Respondents

Cost

Disadvantages ofPersonal Interviews
slide7

Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Speed of Data Collection Moderate to fast

Geographical Flexibility Limited to moderate

Respondent Cooperation Excellent

Versatility of Questioning Quite versatile

slide8

Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Questionnaire Length Long

Item Nonresponse Low

Possibility of Respondent Lowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer High

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers Moderate

slide9

Door-to-Door Personal Interview

Anonymity of Respondent Low

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Difficult

Cost Highest

Special Features Visual materials may be

shown or demonstrated;

extended probing possible

slide10

Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Speed of Data Collection Fast

Geographical Flexibility Confined, urban bias

Respondent Cooperation Moderate to low

Versatility of Questioning Extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length Moderate to Long

slide11

Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Item Nonresponse Medium

Possibility of Respondent Lowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer Highest

Influence of Answers

Supervision of Interviewers Moderate to high

slide12

Mall Intercept Personal Interview

Anonymity of Respondent Low

Ease of Call Back or Difficult

Follow-up

Cost Moderate to high

Special Features Taste test, viewing

of TV Commercials

possible

slide14

Telephone Surveys

Speed of Data Collection Very fast

Geographical Flexibility High

Respondent Cooperation Good

Versatility of Questioning Moderate

slide15

Telephone Surveys

Questionnaire Length Moderate

Item Nonresponse Medium

Possibility of Respondent Average

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer Moderate

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers High, especially with central location WATS interviewing

slide16

Telephone Surveys

Anonymity of Respondent Moderate

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Easy

Cost Low to moderate 25% of the cost of door-to-door

door-to-door interviews

Special Features Fieldwork and supervision

of data collection are

simplified; quite adaptable

to computer technology

telephone surveys1
Central Location Interviewing

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing

Computerized Voice-Activated Interviews

Telephone Surveys
most unlisted markets
Sacramento, CA

Oakland, CA

Fresno, CA

Los Angles/Long Beach, CA

Most Unlisted Markets
slide20

Mail Survey

Speed of Data Collection Researcher has no control

over return of questionnaire; slow

Geographical Flexibility High

Respondent Cooperation Moderate--poorly designed

questionnaire will have low response rate

Versatility of Questioning Highly standardized format

slide21

Mail Survey

Questionnaire Length Varies depending on incentive

Item Nonresponse High

Possibility of Respondent Highest--no interviewer

Misunderstanding present for clarification

Degree of Interviewer None--interviewer absent

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers Not applicable

slide22

Mail Survey

Anonymity of Respondent High

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Easy, but takes time

Cost Lowest

slide23

How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys

  • Write a “Sales Oriented” Cover Letter
  • Money Helps
  • - As a token of appreciation
  • - For a charity
  • Stimulate Respondents’ Interest with Interesting Questions
  • Follow Up
  • - Keying questionnaires with codes
  • Advanced Notification
  • Sponsorship by a Well-known and Prestigious Institution
slide24

Increasing Response Rates

  • Effective Cover Letter
  • Money Helps
  • Interesting Questions
  • Follow-Ups
  • Advanced Notification
  • Survey Sponsorship
  • Keying Questionnaires
self administered questionnaires
Mail

Place of Business

Drop-Off

Computerized

E-mail

Internet

Other Variations

Self-Administered Questionnaires
internet surveys
Speed of Data Collection

Instantaneous

Geographic Flexibility

worldwide

Respondent Cooperation

varies depending on web site

Internet Surveys
internet surveys1
Versatility of questioning

extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length

modest

Item Nonresponse

software can assure none

Internet Surveys
internet surveys2
Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding

high

Interviewer Influence of Answers

none

Supervision of Interviewers none

Internet Surveys
internet surveys3
Anonymity of Respondent

Respondent can be anonymous or known

Ease of Callback or Follow-up

difficult

Cost

low

Special Features

allows graphics and motion

Internet Surveys
internet surveys4
Item Nonresponse software can assure none

Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding

high

Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answers

none

Supervision of Interviewers

none

Internet Surveys
internet surveys5
Anonymity of Respondent

Respondent can be anonymous or known

Ease of Callback or Follow-up

difficult

Cost

low

Special Features

allows graphics and motion

Internet Surveys
selected questions to determine the appropriate technique
Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?

Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated?

Will cooperation be easily attained?

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique:
selected questions to determine the appropriate technique1
How quickly is the information needed?

Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire?

How large is the budget?

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique:
pretesting
A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey designPretesting
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