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The Formation of Stars. Chapter 11. Giant Molecular Clouds Large Low density Cold. To Form Stars Small High density Hot. 4 Factors that Resist Contraction. Thermal Energy Interstellar Magnetic Field Rotation Turbulence. Shockwaves. Caused by: Supernova Explosions

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slide2

Giant Molecular Clouds

  • Large
  • Low density
  • Cold

To Form Stars

  • Small
  • High density
  • Hot
4 factors that resist contraction
4 Factors that Resist Contraction
  • Thermal Energy
  • Interstellar Magnetic Field
  • Rotation
  • Turbulence
shockwaves
Shockwaves

Caused by:

  • Supernova Explosions
  • Ignition of very hot stars—can ionize nearby gas
  • Collisions of molecular clouds
  • Spiral Pattern of the Milky Way Galaxy
how to get hot enough
How to get hot enough?

Free-Fall Contraction

  • The cloud begins to contract as gravity pulls atoms to the center.
  • Increase in velocity = heating of gas
  • Increase in velocity leads to thermal energy
protostar
Protostar
  • Definition: A prestellar object that is hot enough to radiate infrared radiation but not hot enough to generate energy by nuclear fusion.
  • Hidden by Cocoons
  • Emit infrared radiation
  • Located on the Birth line of the HR Diagram
  • 0.1% of star’s lifetime
the cno cycle
The CNO Cycle
  • The Hydrogen fusion process that used Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen as stepping stones.
  • Used by main sequence stars with mass greater than 1.1 solar masses
  • Temperatures greater than 16 million K
slide8

Carbon-12 nucleus absorbs a proton

  • Becomes nitrogen-13
  • Decays into Carbon-13, absorbs a 2nd proton
  • Becomes Nitrogen-14, absorbs a 3rd proton
  • Becomes Oxygen-15
  • Decays into Nitrogen-15, absorbs a 4th proton, ejects a He nucleus
  • Becomes Carbon-12
energy transport
Energy Transport
  • Conduction
  • Radiation
  • Convection
inside stars
Inside Stars
  • Upper Main Sequence Stars
    • More massive
    • CNO Cycle
    • Convective Zone in center
  • Lower Main Sequence Stars
    • Least massive
    • Proton-Proton Chain
    • Radiative Zone in center
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