The Human Genome Project
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

” Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution". PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 74 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Figures and references are from: DOE Human Genome Program and this website: http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis. ” Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution".

Download Presentation

” Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution".

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Figures and references are from: DOE Human Genome Program and this website: http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

”Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution".

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Begun in 1990, the US portion of the Human Genome Project was a 13-year effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project originally was planned to last 15 years, but rapid technological advances have accelerated the completion date. It is now finished 4 years early.

http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/home.html

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

  • Project goals are to

    • identify all the more than 100,000 genes in human DNA, (That is what they thought at the time.)

    • determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA,

    • store this information in databases,

    • develop tools for data analysis, and

    • address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Where are we now?

The amount of genetic information doubles each year.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

First Human Chromosome Completely Sequenced!

On December 1, 1999, researchers in the Human Genome Project announced the complete sequencing of the DNA making up human chromosome 22.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

………….researchers at the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, California, have decoded in draft form the genetic information on human chromosomes 5, 16 and 19. The chromosomes contain an estimated 10-15,000 genes, including those whose defects may lead to genetically linked diseases such as certain forms of kidney disease, prostate and colorectal cancer, leukemia, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Progress Toward HGP Sequencing

Goals: 97.7% of 3 billion DNA base pairs

Working draft sequence

Goal: 90% by summer 2000

79.1% (2,540,358,000 bases) (01/May/00)

Finished, high quality sequence:

Goal: 100% by 2003

18.6% (598,586,000 bases) (01/May/00)

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

What is meant by Gene Mapping?

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Genomic geography. The human genome can be mapped in a number of ways.

physical maps

genetic linkage maps

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

A Hierarchy of Gene Maps:

Whole chromosome—100 million base pairs

Which chromosome?

mouse-human cell

fusion techniques

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Fragment the chromosome into 100-200 pieces.

Each piece is about 100-200 kilo base pairs

Separate the fragments and insert them into large cloning vectors (for ex: a YAC.)

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

A cytogenetic map is based on staining or in-situ hybridization of

chromosomes.

Resolution = 3-4 M bases

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

A linkage map is based on frequency of recombination between traits.

The first linkage maps were done on the X chromosome.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Physical maps are based on restriction mapping of marker locations on fragments.

Sets of YAC clones (100-1000 kilobases)

Cosmid clones (40 kilobases)

Plasmid clones (17 kilobases)

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

A “contig” is a set of overlapping clones.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

YAC = yeast artificial chromosome

ARS

Centromere

Telomeres

ARS (autonomously replicating sequence)

Some minimum amount of DNA (can accommodate several 100

Kilobases of DNA)

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

The DNA sequences of overlapping clones can be put together to map the sequence of genes or particular regions of chromosomes.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

EST = Expressed Sequence Tags

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Technology

Recombinant DNA

Gene Sequencing

PCR

Cell Fusion

cDNA

EST’s

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Applications

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Assignment 2: Annotated Bookmarks of Web Resources for Human Genetics and the Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project

Gene Data Bases

Resources on Inherited Diseases

Genetic Counseling

Educational Resources

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Organization

Science

Technology

Applications

Social and Ethical Issues

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

deCODE´s research on the origin of Icelanders

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

Iceland: A genetically

homogeneous population

with detailed medical

records going back more

than 60 years.

The Human Genome Project


Nothing in biology makes sense unless it is viewed in the light of evolution

“I find it disgusting that people can make

such huge amounts of money by breaking

ethical rules.” says psychiatrist Peter

Hauksson, who is among the 25 percent of

Icelanders who object to Stefansson’s plan.

The Human Genome Project


  • Login