natural history of stream invertebrates using and making sense of biotic indices and beyond
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Natural History of Stream Invertebrates: Using and Making Sense of Biotic Indices, and Beyond Natural History The study and description of organisms and natural objects, especially their origins, evolution, and interrelationships caddisfly sowbug Natural History

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natural history
Natural History
  • The study and description of organisms and natural objects, especially their origins, evolution, and interrelationships

caddisfly

sowbug

natural history3
Natural History
  • Some examples related to aquatic macroinvertebrates might include:
    • Ecology (relationships between living organisms and the non-living components of the environment in which they live)
    • Behavior
    • Functional feeding groups
what problems must macroinvertebrates solve because they live in streams
What Problems Must Macroinvertebrates Solve Because They Live In Streams?
  • Aqueous medium (tough to get O2)
  • Medium that is generally moving upstream-downstream
  • Diel variation in physio-chemical characteristics
  • Seasonal variation in hydrology
  • Connected to upstream conditions
  • Linked to land-water interface

black flies

feeding groups or guilds
Feeding Groups or Guilds
  • Shredders - Coarse woody or plant associated materials
  • Filtering Collectors - Suspended particulates, microbes, phytoplankton
  • Gathering Collectors - Deposited particulates
  • Grazers/Scrapers - Peryiphyton & fungi
  • Predators - especially invertebrates

caddisfly

stonefly

some guiding principles for classification
Some Guiding Principles for Classification
  • Everyone can classify objects
  • Ways macroinvertebrates may be classified:
    • Functional feeding groups
    • Morphology
    • Locomotion
    • Microhabitat
    • Type of metamorphosis
    • Means of obtaining oxygen
    • Need for oxygen / Ability of stream to provide that oxygen

net spinning caddisfly

biotic indices
Biotic Indices
  • A way to classify based on macroinvertebrates’ tolerance to pollution
    • Generally this means organic pollution
      • Or that which affects oxygen levels in the stream
biotic indices8
Biotic Indices
  • Some organisms require water with a lot of oxygen in it
  • Others have adaptations to obtaining the oxygen they need
adaptations for obtaining oxygen
Adaptations for Obtaining Oxygen

Morphological

  • Tubes
  • Soft tissue between segments & gills
  • Hair-like/Plate-like wings

Behavioral

  • Body pumping
  • Swimming to surface
  • Construct burrows or tubes
biotic indices10
Biotic Indices
  • Assign pollution tolerance values to organisms based on their oxygen needs
  • Order level
  • Fairly Simple: Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor
  • Tolerance values 1, 2, 3 and 4

# Group 1 * tolerance value (4)=

# Group 2 * tolerance value (3)=

# Group 3 * tolerance value (2)=

# Group 4 * tolerance value (1)=

SUM A SUM B

  • SUM B/SUM A = Biotic Index Score
biotic indices11
Biotic Indices
  • More tricky: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very Poor
  • Weighted average: Each individual is counted (rather than just counting types)
  • Tolerance values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
  • If 100 organisms in sample…

Number of inverts in family * tolerance

1 *9 = 9

10 *8 = 80

16 *7 = 112

14 *6 = 84

5 *5 = 25

39 *4 = 156

5 *3 = 15

10 *2 = 20

100 501

  • Answer: 501/100 = 5.01
  • Gives specific types of macroinvertebrates individual credit for being in the stream
diversity of families of aquatic insects in wisconsin
Diversity of Families of Aquatic Insects in Wisconsin
  • Generally find 10 Orders
  • Approximately 89 Families

water penny

riffle beetle

what are tolerances feeding strategies and presence of different families in wisconsin streams like
What are tolerances, feeding strategies, and presence of different families in Wisconsin streams like?
representative mayflies
Representative Mayflies

armored mayfly

flathead mayfly

Hexagenia

prong gill mayfly adult

slide17
Dragonflies obtain oxygen through soft tissue between plates; Damselflies use leaf-like abdominal gills

Page 23

representative dragonflies damselflies
Representative Dragonflies & Damselflies

broadwing damselfly larva

darner dragonfly larva

darner dragonfly adult

broadwing damselfly adult

representative stoneflies
Representative Stoneflies

perlodid stonefly

common stonefly

slide21
True bugs may use atmospheric oxygen or may use hair-like or tube-like modifications on their abdomens
representative true bugs
Representative True Bugs

giant water bug

water strider

water scorpion

back swimmer

slide23
Dobsonflies, fishflies, hellgrammites, and alderflies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissue
representative hellgrammites or alderflies top spongillaflies bottom
Representative Hellgrammites or Alderflies (Top) & Spongillaflies (Bottom)

hellgrammite

Alderfly larva

spongillafly

adult alderfly

slide26
Caddisflies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues and sometimes with gills and pumping water through case
slide27
Caddisflies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues and sometimes with gills and pumping water through case
representative caddisflies
Representative Caddisflies

humpless casemaker caddisfly

saddlecase maker caddisfly

net spinning caddisfly

slide30
Beetles obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues and from the atmosphere through modified hairs and plate-like wings
representative beetles
Representative Beetles

Riffle beetle adult

slide32
Flies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues including abdominal gills and atmospheric oxygen through breathing tubes
slide33
Flies obtain oxygen through diffusion across soft tissues including abdominal gills and atmospheric oxygen through breathing tubes
representative flies
Representative Flies

midge larva

cranefly larva

midge adult

biotic indices aren t the only solution
Biotic Indices aren’t the only solution
  • Diversity indices
  • Richness (# species)
  • Feeding guilds
  • Don’t forget to think about scale…
slide37

Figure 2. Scale of Sampling and Analysis in Streams

Ecosystem/Biome

Watershed

Ecosystem

Reach

Community/Ecosystem

Pool-Riffle Sequence

Hours Days Weeks Months Years Decades Centuries

Population/Community

Microhabitat

Individual Organism,

Particle or Grain

Millimeters Meters Kilometers Sq. Kilometers

slide38

Thought Question:

What spatial and temporal scale would you choose to sample to determine changes in populations (number of individuals of the same species in a given area)?

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