Chapter 6 disorders of fluid electrolyte and acid base balance
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 43

Chapter 6 Disorders of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 173 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 6 Disorders of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance. Fluid Distribution. Intracellular compartment Extracellular compartment Interstitial spaces Plasma (vascular) compartment Transcellular compartment. Osmosis: Which Way Will Water Move?. Blood: Few solutes Lots of water.

Download Presentation

Chapter 6 Disorders of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 6 disorders of fluid electrolyte and acid base balance

Chapter 6Disorders of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance


Fluid distribution

Fluid Distribution

  • Intracellular compartment

  • Extracellular compartment

    • Interstitial spaces

    • Plasma (vascular) compartment

    • Transcellular compartment


Osmosis which way will water move

Osmosis: Which Way Will Water Move?

Blood:

Few solutes

Lots of water

Cell:

Many solutes

Less water


Water follows solutes

“Water Follows Solutes”

Blood:

Few solutes

Lots of water

Cell:

Many solutes

Less water


Scenario

Scenario:

  • An athlete ran a marathon even though he felt ill…

  • After the race he collapsed. He was pale with low blood pressure and sunken eyes. One knee and ankle were badly swollen, and his abdomen was distended with fluid. The doctor diagnosed appendicitis and dehydration.

    Question:

  • What has happened to his:

    • Blood osmolarity?

    • Cell size?

    • Transcellular fluid volume?

    • Vascular compartment volume?


Forces moving fluid in and out of capillaries

Forces Moving Fluid In and Out of Capillaries


Question

Question

What forces work to keep blood in the capillary?

  • Capillary colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and tissue COP

  • Capillary hydrostatic pressure and tissue COP

  • Capillary hydrostatic pressure and tissue hydrostatic pressure

  • Capillary COP and tissue hydrostatic pressure


Answer

Answer

  • Capillary COP and tissue hydrostatic pressure

    Rationale:Hydrostatic pressure can be thought of as “pushing pressure,” and osmotic pressure can be thought of as “pulling” pressure. Pressure in the capillary that pulled/kept fluid in (capillary COP) and pressure pushing fluid out of the tissue (tissue hydrostatic pressure) would result in more fluid in the capillary.


Sodium

Sodium

  • Normal level is 135–145 mEq/L

  • Regulates extracellular fluid volume and osmolarity

    Question:

  • Why would “retaining sodium” cause high blood pressure?


Scenario1

Scenario

It’s a very hot day and you fall down the stairs on the way to see the doctor about your hepatitis and renal disease

  • Explain why you have edema in your sprained ankle and foot


Controlling blood osmolarity

Controlling Blood Osmolarity

  • High osmolarity causes:

    • Thirst  increased water intake

    • ADH release  water reabsorbed from urine

  • Low osmolarity causes:

    • Lack of thirst  decreased water intake

    • Decreased ADH release  water lost in urine


Question1

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false.

Increased levels of ADH decrease urine output.


Answer1

Answer

True

Rationale:ADH prevents diuresis by causing more water to be absorbed in the kidney tubules. If more water is absorbed, there is less water left to eliminate as waste, decreasing urine output.


Dehydration due to hypodipsia

Dehydration Due to Hypodipsia

  • A common problem in elderly people

    Scenario:

  • Dr. Bob thinks it could be treated with ADH given in a nasal spray

  • Dr. Bill thinks renin injections would be better

    Question:

  • What is your evaluation of these two theories?


Adh imbalances

ADH Imbalances

  • Diabetes insipidus (DI)

    • Neurogenic

    • Nephrogenic

  • Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)

  • Which will cause hyponatremia?


Sodium imbalances

Sodium Imbalances

  • Hyponatremia (<135 mEq/L)

    • Hypertonic

    • Hypotonic (dilutional)

  • Hypernatremia (>145 mEq/L)

    • Water deficit

    • Na+ administration


Scenario2

Scenario

  • A man with hypernatremia was severely confused

    Question:

  • The doctor said this was due to a change in the size of his brain cells. Why would this happen?

  • A medical student suggested giving him a hypotonic IV. Why?

  • The doctor said that might worsen the change in his brain cell size, and that his blood osmolarity should be corrected very slowly. Why?


Potassium

Potassium

  • Normal level is 3.5–5.0 mEq/L

  • Maintains intracellular osmolarity

  • Controls cell resting potential

  • Needed for Na+/K+ pump

  • Exchanged for H+ to buffer changes in blood pH


What will happen to blood k levels when the client has

What Will Happen to Blood K+ Levels When the Client Has:

  • Hyperaldosteronism?

  • Alkalosis?

  • An injection of epinephrine?

  • Convulsions?

  • Loop diuretics?


The basics of cell firing

The Basics of Cell Firing

  • Cells begin with a negative charge— resting membrane potential

  • Stimulus causes some Na+ channels to open

  • Na+ diffuses in, making the cell more positive

Threshold potential

Resting membrane potential

stimulus


The basics of cell firing cont

The Basics of Cell Firing (cont.)

Action potential

  • At threshold potential, more Na+ channels open

  • Na+ rushes in, making the cell very positive: depolarization

  • Action potential: the cell responds (e.g., by contracting)

Threshold potential

Resting membrane potential

stimulus


The basics of cell firing cont1

The Basics of Cell Firing (cont.)

Action potential

  • K+ channels open

  • K+ diffuses out, making the cell negative again: repolarization

  • Na+/K+ ATPase removes the Na+ from the cell and pumps the K+ back in

Threshold potential

Resting membrane potential

stimulus


Blood k levels control resting potential

Blood K+ Levels Control Resting Potential

  • Hyperkalemia raises resting potential toward threshold

    • Cells fire more easily

    • When resting potential reaches threshold, Na+ gates open and won’t close

Threshold potential

Hyperkalemia

Normal resting membrane potential


Blood k levels control resting potential cont

Blood K+ Levels Control Resting Potential (cont.)

  • Hypokalemia lowers resting potential away from threshold

    • Cells fire less easily

Threshold potential

Normal resting membrane potential

Hypokalemia


Question2

Question

What effect does a potassium level of 7.5 mEq/L have on resting membrane potential (RMP)?

  • RMP becomes less negative, and it takes a greater stimulus in order for cells to fire.

  • RMP becomes less negative, and it takes less of a stimulus in order for cells to fire.

  • RMP becomes more negative, and it takes a greater stimulus in order for cells to fire.

  • RMP becomes more negative, and it takes less of a stimulus in order for cells to fire.


Answer2

Answer

  • RMP becomes less negative, and it takes less of a stimulus in order for cells to fire.

    Rationale:A potassium level of 7.5 mEq/L is considered hyperkalemic. In hyperkalemia, RMP is moved closer to the threshold (it becomes less negative). Because RMP is nearer to the threshold, a weaker stimulus will cause the cell to fire (a lesser distance must be overcome).


Calcium

Calcium

  • Normal level is 8.5–10.5 mg/dL

  • Extracellular: blocks Na+ gates in nerve and muscle cells

  • Clotting

  • Leaks into cardiac muscle, causing it to fire

  • Intracellular: needed for all muscle contraction

  • Acts as second messenger in many hormone and neurotransmitter pathways


Scenario3

Scenario:

  • A man with metastatic cancer complains of bone pain and sudden weakness

    Question:

  • Why did the doctor measure:

    • PTH?

    • Calcium levels?

    • Vitamin D levels?


Magnesium

Magnesium

  • Normal level is 1.8–2.7 mg/dL

  • Cofactor in enzymatic reactions

    • Involving ATP

    • DNA replication

    • mRNA production

  • Binds to Ca2+ receptors

  • Can block Ca2+ channels


Extracellular calcium controls nerve firing

Extracellular Calcium Controls Nerve Firing

  • Hypercalcemia

    • Blocks more Na+ gates

    • Nerves are less able to fire

  • Hypocalcemia

    • Blocks fewer Na+ gates

    • Nerves fire more easily

  • Which would cause Trousseau’s sign?


Question3

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false.

Both hyperkalemia and hypercalcemia cause cells to fire more easily.


Answer3

Answer

False

Rationale:Recall that hyperkalemia causes cells to fire more easily by moving RMP closer to the threshold. Hypercalcemia, on the other hand, blocks more sodium gates. If less sodium enters the cell, it cannot depolarize as quickly (it is less likely to fire). Hypocalcemia blocks fewer sodium gates, so cells depolarize more quickly (they are more likely to fire).


Chapter 6 disorders of fluid electrolyte and acid base balance

Insert fig. 6-16


Acid h

Acid (H+)

  • Normal value: pH = 7.35–7.45

  • Blocks Na+ gates

  • Controls respiratory rate

  • Individual acids have different functions:

    • Byproducts of energy metabolism (carbonic acid, lactic acid)

    • Digestion (hydrochloric acid)

    • “Food” for brain (ketoacids)


Respiratory or volatile acid

Respiratory or Volatile Acid

  • CO2 + H2O   H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

  • H2CO3  H+ + HCO3- (bicarbonate ion)

  • An increase in CO2 will cause

    • Increases in CO2 (increased PCO2)

    • Increases in H+ (lower pH)

    • Increases in bicarbonate ion


Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis

Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis

  • CO2 + H2O   H2CO3  H+ + HCO3- (bicarbonate ion)


Question4

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false.

Serum levels of pH and CO2 levels are directly proportional.


Answer4

Answer

False

Rationale:As blood levels of CO2 increase, pH becomes more acidic (decreases).


Respiration and buffers adjust blood ph

Respiration and Buffers Adjust Blood pH

Scenario:

  • A woman was given an acidic IV. Soon she began to breathe more heavily. Why?

  • When her blood was tested, it had:

    • Slightly lowered pH

    • Low bicarbonate

    • Low PCO2

    • Slightly increased K+

  • Her urine pH was slightly lowered

  • Why?


Buffer systems

Buffer Systems


Metabolic acid imbalances

Metabolic Acid Imbalances

  • Metabolic acidosis

    • Increased levels of ketoacids, lactic acid, etc.

    • Decreased bicarbonate levels

  • Metabolic alkalosis

    • Decreased H+ levels

    • Increased bicarbonate levels


Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis

Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis

  • Increased metabolic acids raise H+ levels

  • Some H+ combines with bicarbonate, decreasing it

  • Breathing adjusts CO2 levels to bring pH back to normal


  • Login