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Bully Prevention. In Positive Behavior Support. Scott Ross & Celeste Rossetto Dickey University of Oregon Educational and Community Supports. Bullying – The Facts.

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Bully Prevention

In Positive Behavior Support

Scott Ross & Celeste Rossetto Dickey

University of Oregon

Educational and Community Supports


Bullying – The Facts

  • The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools. (Beale, 2001)

  • Up to 86 % of elementary school students report being harassed and bullied at school each year.

    (Smith & Sprague, 2000)


Bullying – The Facts

Of boys considered to have serious bullying problems between 6th and 9th grades:

  • 60% had a least one criminal conviction, and

  • 40% had three or more arrests - by age 24.

    (Olweus, 1991; Committee for Children, 2001)


Past Attempts

  • Outcomes less than ideal

  • Maintenance a major issue

  • The role of bystanders not addressed


Goals

  • Define a set of core features for Bully Prevention

  • Define how to embed Bully Prevention into existing School-wide Expectations.

  • Provide current update from one research effort.


Main Ideas

  • “Bullying” is aggression, harassment, threats or intimidation when one person has greater status, control, power than the other.


Main Ideas

  • Bullying behavior typically becomes more likely because the “victims” or “bystanders” provide rewards for bullying behaviors.

    • Social attention

    • Social recognition

    • Social status


Challenges for Schools

Although common and frequent, most bullying and harassment behaviors are exhibited outside of adult supervision.


Big Idea

  • All “bully proofing” skills are more effective if the school has first established a set of school-wide behavioral expectations.


CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

~5%

~15%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students


Creating Effective Learning Environments

  • Create environments that are:

    • Predictable

    • Consistent

    • Positive

    • Safe


An Approach

  • What does NOT work

    • Identifying the “bully” and excluding him/her from school

    • Pretending that Bullying Behavior is the “fault” of the student/family/victim.

  • What does work

    • Define, teach and reward school-wide behavior expectations.

    • Teach all children to identify and label inappropriate behavior.

      • Not respectful, not responsible., not safe

    • Teach all students a “stop signal” to give when they experience problem behavior.

      • What to do if you experience problem behavior (victim, recipient)

      • What to do if you see someone else in a problem situation (bystander)

    • Teach all students what to do if someone delivers the “stop signal”


  • Do not focus on “Bullying”

    • Focus on appropriate behavior.

      • What is the behavior you want

      • “Responsible”

      • No mention of Bullying


    Teaching Social Responsibility

    • Teach school-wide expectations first

      • Be respectful

      • Be responsible

      • Be safe

    • Focus on “non-structured” settings

      • Cafeteria, Gym, Playground, Hallway, Bus Area

  • Use same teaching format

    • If someone directs problem behavior toward you.

    • If you see others receive problem behavior

    • If someone tells you to “stop”


  • Embedding Bully-Prevention: One Example

    • Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

    • Current status of research effort


    Acknowledgements

    • Rob Horner, Ph.D

    • Bruce Stiller, Ph.D

    • Jeff Sprague, Ph.D


    Caveats

    • Be sure to have PBS systems in place first!

    • BP-PBS is a Yellow Zone Intervention: Some kids may still need additional support


    Delivering Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

    • Problem Behaviors in:

      • Basketball, Four square, In between

    • Why do kids do it?

      • The candle and the glass

    • A clear, simple, and easy to remember 3 step response:

      Stop, Walk, Talk


    Teach the “Stop Signal”

    • If someone is directing problem behavior to you, or someone else, tell them to “stop.”

    • How do you deliver the “stop signal” if you are feeling intimidated, harassed, bullied?

    • How do you deliver the “stop signal” if you see someone else being harassed, teased, bullied?


    Teach “walk away”

    • How do we walk away so that the perpetrator gets the idea?

    • Remind students that most socially initiated problem behavior is maintained by peer attention.

      • Victim behavior inadvertently maintains taunt, tease, intimidate, harassment behavior.

      • Build social reward for “walking away”

        • Do not reward inappropriate behavior.


    Teach “getting help”

    • Report problems to adults

      • Where is the line between tattling, and reporting?

        • Did you request, “stop”

        • Did you walk away?


    Teaching a Reply

    • Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, they should do the following things

      • Stop what they are doing

      • Take a deep breath

      • Go about their day (no big deal)

    • These steps should be followed even when they don’t agree with the “stop”


    Let’s Try Some…


    How Adults Respond

    When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response:

    • Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "I'm glad you told me.")

    • Ask who, what, when and where.

    • Ensure the student’s safety.

      • Is the bullying still happening?

      • Is the reporting child at risk?

      • Fear of revenge?

      • What does the student need to feel safe?

      • What is the severity of the situation

    • "Did you tell the student to stop?" (If yes, praise the student for using an appropriate response)

    • "Did you walk away from the problem behavior?" (If yes, praise student for using appropriate response)


    When the child did it right…

    Adults initiate the following interaction with the Perpetrator:

    • "Did ______ tell you to stop?"

      • If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 2

      • If no: Practice the 3 step response.

  • "Did ______ walk away?"

    • If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 3

    • If no: Practice the 3 step response.

  • Practice the 3 step response.

    • The amount of practice depends on the severity and frequency of problem behavior


  • Checking in

    • For chronic victims of bullying or harassment

      • At the beginning of recess, 1 adult should check in with the student and remind them about how to respond to problem behavior.

      • At the end of recess, check in again, ask about how it went, and reward them for their efforts.


    Checking in

    • For chronic perpetrators of bullying or harassment

      • At the beginning of recess, check in with the student and remind them about how to reply if another student uses the 3 step response with them.

      • At the end of recess, check in again, ask about how it went, and reward them for their efforts.


    Some Data on Problem Behavior During Recess: Pilot Study

    Rob

    Jeff

    Incidents of Problem Behavior at Recess

    Bruce

    Composite Peer

    Day


    Contact Information

    • Scott Ross

      • [email protected]

    • Celeste Rossetto Dickey

      • [email protected]


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