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The World of Work in Canada. ISSUES Tonight. TRENDS IN WORKFORCE WOMEN AND WORK CONSUMERISM INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. PERSPECTIVES ON WORK. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL -consensus, cooperation, function Conflict -power, domination Symbolic Interaction -status dynamics Feminist -patriarchy

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issues tonight
ISSUES Tonight
  • TRENDS IN WORKFORCE
  • WOMEN AND WORK
  • CONSUMERISM
  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
perspectives on work
PERSPECTIVES ON WORK
  • STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL-consensus, cooperation, function
  • Conflict-power, domination
  • Symbolic Interaction-status dynamics
  • Feminist-patriarchy
  • Post Modern-fragmentation
work and identity
Work and Identity
  • Work and Identity.
  • Work defines: opportunities, incomes and lifestyles. 
  • Work believe it or not, still occupies half of ourwaking hours..
  • In a lifetime, one spends one year having sex, one year on the toilet…30 years working.
work in canada
Work in Canada
  • THREE PHASES: See Daniel Bell (1993)
  • EARLY INDUSTRIALISM
  • FACTORY INDUSTRIALISM
  • POST INDUSTRIALISM
slide6

A HISTORY OF WORK IN CANADA I

  • The first Industrial Revolution began in Britain in late 18thc.
  • Turned peasants (serfs)into wage-earning factory workers (proletariats)..see K. Marx.
mid 20 th century
MID 20TH Century
  • ASSEMBLY LINES
  • FACTORIES
  • SYSTEMATIC PRODUCTION
  • UNIONISM (8hr day, worker rights protected)
slide8

MANAGERIAL STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIZING WORK I

  • Taylorism, or scientific management, involved identifying the components of jobs and giving management almost complete control over how they were carried out.
  • The human relations school of management developed out of studies showing that friendly supervision and attention to the social environment increase workers’ co-operation and productivity.
slide9

TECHNOLOGY AND THE SERVICE INDUSTRY I

In today’s service economy:

  • Information technology is used to reorganize work and improve a firm’s productivity and efficiency.
  • Telecommunication enables the globalization of work.
  • Management often uses computers to help control the work process and employees.
slide10

TECHNOLOGY AND THE SERVICE INDUSTRY II

Whether technology positively or negatively affects work depends on:

  • outcomes desired by management;
  • the type of technology a company can afford; and
  • whether workers are given a say in its implementation.
slide11

UNIONS II

  • Public sector and other service workers have the most potential for increased unionization.
  • The rise of non-standard work and the ease with which companies can move their businesses to other countries raise serious challenges to unions.
  • The union response to this challenge will decide whether they grow or decline.
trends in the workforce
Trends in the Workforce:
  • INFORMAL Work
  • UNDEREMPLOYMENT
  • TWO TIERED ECONOMY
  • LESS STANDARDIZED WORK
  • DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION
issue 2 women and work
ISSUE 2:Women and Work
  • From the expressive homemaker to double day of labour. (I.e. Meg
  • See Luxton’s, More than a Labour of Love (1980)
current data canada
Current data:Canada
  • Women in 2005 earned just 70½ cents
  • Compare this to the 72 cents women in the 1990s
wage gap explanation
WAGE GAP EXPLANATION
  • FIVE KEY:
  • Patriarchy,
  • Status Dynamics,
  • Power at work,
  • Interaction,
  • Glass ceiling, objectification..
slide16

DO MEN AND WOMEN MANAGE DIFFERENTLY?

  • Some research shows that women managers are more interactive and people-oriented.
  • Other research finds that management strategies depend more on organizational context (e.g., position in the organizational hierarchy) than on gender.
  • There is growing consensus that no real differences exist between men’s and women’s managing styles.
nancy bonvillian
Nancy Bonvillian-
  • Women and Men: Cultural Constructs of Gender (3rd ed).
  • THESIS:Women and Work-modernization increases women’s oppression
bonvillian on social development
Bonvillian on Social Development
  • Hunter and Gathering
  • Horticulture –
  • Agriculture –
  • Industrialism and capitalism-
from agriculture to manufacturing
From Agriculture to Manufacturing
  • In the early 1900’s most jobs were in manufacturing and agriculture,
  • Women worked side by side with men
  • More equality according to Bonovillian
however by the 20 th century
However, by the 20th century..
  • Women’s work increasingly became secondary supplement to man’s income.
  • WOMEN WORK…was associated with the invisible labour in the home..
important material change the type writer
Important material change: The Type writer
  • INCREASED WOMAN’s OPPRESSION
  • W. F. Ogburn, Social Change (1933)
  • -Material culture affects non- material culture.
20 th century stages in women s work
20th century stages in women’s work
  • 1900-1914-Cult of Domesticity
  • World War One Rosie the Riveter
  • World War Two. Rosie the Riveter
  • 1946-Late 1950’s -Domesticity returns
1950 s women work
   1950’s Women work -
  • BECOMES LESS VALUED, MORE INVISIBLE…but MORE CRUCIAL..
  • Post World War Two and particularly following economic booms and busts
since 19 60s
  Since 1960s :
  • More women in the labour force
  • Pill and the sexual revolution
  • Second Wave feminism
  • Third wave feminism
now dual income families vital
Now Dual Income Families Vital
  • As fertility declines following the introduction of the pill in 1963, we see a corresponding rise in female labour force participation
issue three

ISSUE THREE

CONSUMERISM and Capitalism

consumerism
Consumerism
  • A term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption.
commodity fetishism
Commodity Fetishism
  • It is often associated with criticisms of consumption starting with Karl Marx and Thorstein Veblen
  • Karl Marx calls capitalistic consumption-Commodity Fetishism
veblen commodities as veblen goods
Veblen.Commodities as Veblen goods
  • Consumerismcan also refer to economic policies that place an emphasis on consumption.
  • The value of a commodity increases with its price…see `COOL THREADS’ VIDEO
consumer sovereignty
Consumer Sovereignty?
  • …should dictate the economic structure of a society (cf. Producerism, especially in the British sense of the term).
theory of consumer choice
Theory of consumer choice
  • In a liberal, democratic society, which is the institutional framework ofa marketor "capitalist" economic system,
  • This translates into an ideology of CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY.
consumerism conflict theory and hegemony
Consumerism, Conflict theory and Hegemony
  • Consumerism- is part of the general process of social control and hegemony
  • Consumerism is part of bourgeois `false consciousness’
echo consumers
ECHO CONSUMERS
  • Canadians under the age of twenty—the "Echo Generation," as they\'re often called—make up a quarter (26 per cent) of the country\'s population.
echo generation y
ECHO GENERATION-Y
  • Once an ignored demographic for advertisers,
  • ECHO GENERATION-
  • Now the most marketed-to generation in history
mental life
MENTAL LIFE
  • Constant bombardment of marketing messages that have become a ubiquitous force in MENTAL LIFE
  • SEE WOODSTOCK 1 vs. 2
consumer culture
Consumer culture
  • There has been a rise in consumer culture affecting all including children.
  • THIS IS: The Branding of Culture
the averages
The Averages:

Two year old child can name products

I. ByFour years, they can evaluate a product

II. By Six years old they can distinguish products by brand.

brands as symbols expensive brands better
Brands as Symbols Expensive brands better,
  • III. By age eleven has a child started to perceivedeceptive advertising,
  • IV. By Sixteen years can/or not make a reliable judgment about qualities of product and truthfulness of sales pitches.
consumerism more work
Consumerism=More Work
  • Studies show that in 1992, UK labour force survey
  • 60% working-people spend more andmore of their lives at work…
issue four
ISSUE FOUR

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)

question conflict theory vs functionalism
Question –conflict theory vs. functionalism
  • Does information technology increase or decrease social stratification?
the digital divide
The Digital Divide
  • The phrase "digital divide" has emerged as a public policy issue in Canada.
slide43
DIGITAL DIVIDE
  • There is an increasing for need knowledge
  • However, access to information available is contentious
  • Those who can afford computers and time to understand how to extract information is reduced under neo-liberal economics
who has the technology
Who has the Technology?
  • Statistics Canada reported that in 1998, about 36 per cent of Canadian households were connected (Dickinson and Ellison, 1999).
  • Private sector surveys put this figure over 50 per cent in 1999.
slide45

LABOUR MARKETS II

  • Labour market segmentation theorists argue that where you enter the labour market may limit your chances of getting a better job.
  • Good jobs are found mainly in core-area industries. Firms tend to be capital-intensive, large, and highly unionized.
  • Bad jobs are found mainly in peripheral areas. Firms tend to be small, labour-intensive, and non-unionized.
mccauley
McCauley
  • See…Theoretical Foundation for Work and Professions in Jacobs and Bosonac eds., The Professionalization of Work
professionalism
Professionalism
  • CREDENTIALS
  • POWER(control of information?
  • SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
slide48

PROFESSIONS

  • Professions are occupations in which people:
    • control bodies of abstract knowledge;
    • enjoy considerable autonomy at work;
    • exercise authority over subordinates
    • supposedly focus on helping clients.
  • Professions act as labour market shelters that protect members’ access to good jobs.
  • Semi-professionals such as nurses and teachers exercise less control and autonomy than professionals.

and clients; and

slide49

JOB GHETTOS

  • Job ghettos are created when discrimination by employers traps some women, people with disabilities, members of visible minority groups, and young and old workers in bad jobs.
  • Discrimination makes it relatively hard for these groups to enter the primary labour market, which offers upward mobility and the best jobs.
morgan 1994
Morgan, 1994.
  • By the late 1980s…
  • The social welfare consensus that marked the post-war period in North America was beginning to come apart
  • The end of Keynesian Economics…
  • "
21 st century issues
21st century ISSUES:
  • Increased competition
  • Attract capital
  • Generating employment
  • Find sources of tax revenues
  • Widening inequalities between cities,
  • Discrepancies in the level of essential services provided to citizens
summary
Summary
  • WORK is a central part of post industrial society
  • Work has changed since the feudal age…
  • Capitalism=early, mid and post modern stages.
  • Areas-women, consumerism, and information..
internet 1992
Internet (1992)
  • In G8 countries\' a new political culture there emerged:
  • An ideology of information technology (IT) that challenged the concept of universal access –universality erodes..
ideology of information technology
Ideology of information technology
  • THE FREE MARKET:
  • Gained hold of the IT sector by the early 1990s…
  • FIRST PIZZA SOLD=1994.
three it forces
Three IT Forces
  • Drew upon the conservative (right wing) politics,
  • Classical liberal laissez-fairefree market values,
  • Technological determinism (Birdsall, 1996; Birdsall, 1997) See McLuhanism..
neo liberal knowledge based economy
Neo-liberal Knowledge based economy
  • The raw material or basic commodity of this society is information.
  • KNOWLEDGE =POWER?
knowledge based economy
Knowledge-based economy
  • Only the marketplace should determine which goods and services are produced and how they are generated; there are no "public goods."
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