The world of work in canada
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 57

The World of Work in Canada PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 79 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The World of Work in Canada. ISSUES Tonight. TRENDS IN WORKFORCE WOMEN AND WORK CONSUMERISM INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. PERSPECTIVES ON WORK. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL -consensus, cooperation, function Conflict -power, domination Symbolic Interaction -status dynamics Feminist -patriarchy

Download Presentation

The World of Work in Canada

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The World of Work in Canada


ISSUES Tonight

  • TRENDS IN WORKFORCE

  • WOMEN AND WORK

  • CONSUMERISM

  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


PERSPECTIVES ON WORK

  • STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL-consensus, cooperation, function

  • Conflict-power, domination

  • Symbolic Interaction-status dynamics

  • Feminist-patriarchy

  • Post Modern-fragmentation


Work and Identity

  • Work and Identity.

  • Work defines: opportunities, incomes and lifestyles. 

  • Work believe it or not, still occupies half of ourwaking hours..

  • In a lifetime, one spends one year having sex, one year on the toilet…30 years working.


Work in Canada

  • THREE PHASES: See Daniel Bell (1993)

  • EARLY INDUSTRIALISM

  • FACTORY INDUSTRIALISM

  • POST INDUSTRIALISM


A HISTORY OF WORK IN CANADA I

  • The first Industrial Revolution began in Britain in late 18thc.

  • Turned peasants (serfs)into wage-earning factory workers (proletariats)..see K. Marx.


MID 20TH Century

  • ASSEMBLY LINES

  • FACTORIES

  • SYSTEMATIC PRODUCTION

  • UNIONISM (8hr day, worker rights protected)


MANAGERIAL STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIZING WORK I

  • Taylorism, or scientific management, involved identifying the components of jobs and giving management almost complete control over how they were carried out.

  • The human relations school of management developed out of studies showing that friendly supervision and attention to the social environment increase workers’ co-operation and productivity.


TECHNOLOGY AND THE SERVICE INDUSTRY I

In today’s service economy:

  • Information technology is used to reorganize work and improve a firm’s productivity and efficiency.

  • Telecommunication enables the globalization of work.

  • Management often uses computers to help control the work process and employees.


TECHNOLOGY AND THE SERVICE INDUSTRY II

Whether technology positively or negatively affects work depends on:

  • outcomes desired by management;

  • the type of technology a company can afford; and

  • whether workers are given a say in its implementation.


UNIONS II

  • Public sector and other service workers have the most potential for increased unionization.

  • The rise of non-standard work and the ease with which companies can move their businesses to other countries raise serious challenges to unions.

  • The union response to this challenge will decide whether they grow or decline.


Trends in the Workforce:

  • INFORMAL Work

  • UNDEREMPLOYMENT

  • TWO TIERED ECONOMY

  • LESS STANDARDIZED WORK

  • DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION


ISSUE 2:Women and Work

  • From the expressive homemaker to double day of labour. (I.e. Meg

  • See Luxton’s, More than a Labour of Love (1980)


Current data:Canada

  • Women in 2005 earned just 70½ cents

  • Compare this to the 72 cents women in the 1990s


WAGE GAP EXPLANATION

  • FIVE KEY:

  • Patriarchy,

  • Status Dynamics,

  • Power at work,

  • Interaction,

  • Glass ceiling, objectification..


DO MEN AND WOMEN MANAGE DIFFERENTLY?

  • Some research shows that women managers are more interactive and people-oriented.

  • Other research finds that management strategies depend more on organizational context (e.g., position in the organizational hierarchy) than on gender.

  • There is growing consensus that no real differences exist between men’s and women’s managing styles.


Nancy Bonvillian-

  • Women and Men: Cultural Constructs of Gender (3rd ed).

  • THESIS:Women and Work-modernization increases women’s oppression


Bonvillian on Social Development

  • Hunter and Gathering

  • Horticulture –

  • Agriculture –

  • Industrialism and capitalism-


From Agriculture to Manufacturing

  • In the early 1900’s most jobs were in manufacturing and agriculture,

  • Women worked side by side with men

  • More equality according to Bonovillian


However, by the 20th century..

  • Women’s work increasingly became secondary supplement to man’s income.

  • WOMEN WORK…was associated with the invisible labour in the home..


Important material change: The Type writer

  • INCREASED WOMAN’s OPPRESSION

  • W. F. Ogburn, Social Change (1933)

  • -Material culture affects non- material culture.


20th century stages in women’s work

  • 1900-1914-Cult of Domesticity

  • World War One Rosie the Riveter

  • World War Two. Rosie the Riveter

  • 1946-Late 1950’s -Domesticity returns


   1950’s Women work -

  • BECOMES LESS VALUED, MORE INVISIBLE…but MORE CRUCIAL..

  • Post World War Two and particularly following economic booms and busts


  Since 1960s :

  • More women in the labour force

  • Pill and the sexual revolution

  • Second Wave feminism

  • Third wave feminism


Now Dual Income Families Vital

  • As fertility declines following the introduction of the pill in 1963, we see a corresponding rise in female labour force participation


ISSUE THREE

CONSUMERISM and Capitalism


Consumerism

  • A term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption.


Commodity Fetishism

  • It is often associated with criticisms of consumption starting with Karl Marx and Thorstein Veblen

  • Karl Marx calls capitalistic consumption-Commodity Fetishism


Veblen.Commodities as Veblen goods

  • Consumerismcan also refer to economic policies that place an emphasis on consumption.

  • The value of a commodity increases with its price…see `COOL THREADS’ VIDEO


Consumer Sovereignty?

  • …should dictate the economic structure of a society (cf. Producerism, especially in the British sense of the term).


Theory of consumer choice

  • In a liberal, democratic society, which is the institutional framework ofa marketor "capitalist" economic system,

  • This translates into an ideology of CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY.


Consumerism, Conflict theory and Hegemony

  • Consumerism- is part of the general process of social control and hegemony

  • Consumerism is part of bourgeois `false consciousness’


ECHO CONSUMERS

  • Canadians under the age of twenty—the "Echo Generation," as they're often called—make up a quarter (26 per cent) of the country's population.


ECHO GENERATION-Y

  • Once an ignored demographic for advertisers,

  • ECHO GENERATION-

  • Now the most marketed-to generation in history


MENTAL LIFE

  • Constant bombardment of marketing messages that have become a ubiquitous force in MENTAL LIFE

  • SEE WOODSTOCK 1 vs. 2


Consumer culture

  • There has been a rise in consumer culture affecting all including children.

  • THIS IS: The Branding of Culture


The Averages:

Two year old child can name products

I. ByFour years, they can evaluate a product

II. By Six years old they can distinguish products by brand.


Brands as Symbols Expensive brands better,

  • III. By age eleven has a child started to perceivedeceptive advertising,

  • IV. By Sixteen years can/or not make a reliable judgment about qualities of product and truthfulness of sales pitches.


Consumerism=More Work

  • Studies show that in 1992, UK labour force survey

  • 60% working-people spend more andmore of their lives at work…


ISSUE FOUR

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)


Question –conflict theory vs. functionalism

  • Does information technology increase or decrease social stratification?


The Digital Divide

  • The phrase "digital divide" has emerged as a public policy issue in Canada.


  • DIGITAL DIVIDE

  • There is an increasing for need knowledge

  • However, access to information available is contentious

  • Those who can afford computers and time to understand how to extract information is reduced under neo-liberal economics


Who has the Technology?

  • Statistics Canada reported that in 1998, about 36 per cent of Canadian households were connected (Dickinson and Ellison, 1999).

  • Private sector surveys put this figure over 50 per cent in 1999.


LABOUR MARKETS II

  • Labour market segmentation theorists argue that where you enter the labour market may limit your chances of getting a better job.

  • Good jobs are found mainly in core-area industries. Firms tend to be capital-intensive, large, and highly unionized.

  • Bad jobs are found mainly in peripheral areas. Firms tend to be small, labour-intensive, and non-unionized.


McCauley

  • See…Theoretical Foundation for Work and Professions in Jacobs and Bosonac eds., The Professionalization of Work


Professionalism

  • CREDENTIALS

  • POWER(control of information?

  • SOCIAL STRATIFICATION


PROFESSIONS

  • Professions are occupations in which people:

    • control bodies of abstract knowledge;

    • enjoy considerable autonomy at work;

    • exercise authority over subordinates

    • supposedly focus on helping clients.

  • Professions act as labour market shelters that protect members’ access to good jobs.

  • Semi-professionals such as nurses and teachers exercise less control and autonomy than professionals.

and clients; and


JOB GHETTOS

  • Job ghettos are created when discrimination by employers traps some women, people with disabilities, members of visible minority groups, and young and old workers in bad jobs.

  • Discrimination makes it relatively hard for these groups to enter the primary labour market, which offers upward mobility and the best jobs.


Morgan, 1994.

  • By the late 1980s…

  • The social welfare consensus that marked the post-war period in North America was beginning to come apart

  • The end of Keynesian Economics…

  • "


21st century ISSUES:

  • Increased competition

  • Attract capital

  • Generating employment

  • Find sources of tax revenues

  • Widening inequalities between cities,

  • Discrepancies in the level of essential services provided to citizens


Summary

  • WORK is a central part of post industrial society

  • Work has changed since the feudal age…

  • Capitalism=early, mid and post modern stages.

  • Areas-women, consumerism, and information..


Internet (1992)

  • In G8 countries' a new political culture there emerged:

  • An ideology of information technology (IT) that challenged the concept of universal access –universality erodes..


Ideology of information technology

  • THE FREE MARKET:

  • Gained hold of the IT sector by the early 1990s…

  • FIRST PIZZA SOLD=1994.


Three IT Forces

  • Drew upon the conservative (right wing) politics,

  • Classical liberal laissez-fairefree market values,

  • Technological determinism (Birdsall, 1996; Birdsall, 1997) See McLuhanism..


Neo-liberal Knowledge based economy

  • The raw material or basic commodity of this society is information.

  • KNOWLEDGE =POWER?


Knowledge-based economy

  • Only the marketplace should determine which goods and services are produced and how they are generated; there are no "public goods."


  • Login