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UNIT 1 Revision. Cognitive Psychology. Cognitive Psychology Part 1. Multi Store Model of Memory Describe (Sensory Memory, STM, LTM) Research and Evaluate Working Memory Model Describe (Central Exec, Phonological Loop, Visuospatial -sketchpad Research and Evaluate.

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Unit 1 revision

UNIT 1 Revision

Cognitive Psychology


Cognitive psychology part 1

Cognitive Psychology Part 1.

  • Multi Store Model of Memory

    • Describe (Sensory Memory, STM, LTM)

    • Research and Evaluate

  • Working Memory Model

    • Describe (Central Exec, Phonological Loop, Visuospatial-sketchpad

    • Research and Evaluate


  • Cognitive psychology part 2

    Cognitive Psychology Part 2.

    • Eye Witness Testimony

      • Describe what is meant by EWT

      • Discuss research into the effect of MISLEADING INFO on accuracy of EWT

      • Discuss research into the effect of ANXIETY on accuracy of EWT

      • Discuss research in to effect of AGE on accuracy of EWT

      • Discuss ways to improve accuracy of EWT including the use of the COG INTERVIEW


    Cognitive psychology part 2 ctd

    Cognitive Psychology Part 2. ctd

    • Strategies for Memory Improvement

      • Discuss strategies of memory improvement (including how/why they work) for example..

        • Mnemonics

        • Acronyms

        • Acrostics

        • Method of Loci


    The multi store model atkinson shiffrin 1968

    The Multi-Store Model Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)

    Info that is RETRIEVED goes back into the STM

    Maintenance rehearsal keeps info in STM

    ECHOIC

    STORE

    ICONIC

    STORE

    HAPTIC

    STORE

    Incoming sensory information

    SENSORY

    MEMORY

    STORE

    SHORT-

    TERM

    MEMORY

    LONG-

    TERM

    MEMORY

    Initially registered in the…

    Info which is ATTENDED to (paid attention to) goes into the…

    Info which is REHEARSED goes into

    Elaborative rehearsal cause info to go into the LTM

    Information not attended to is lost quickly

    Information lost (via FIFO displacement or decay) if not rehearsed

    Information lost via natural decay if it is not retrieved


    Sensory memory summary

    Sensory Memory Summary

    ENCODING

    Info from the sensory organs is stored in one of three forms…

    …ICONIC, ECHOIC, HAPTIC

    Visual images; sounds; feelings

    DURATION

    Information in sensory memory is held for approx…

    …1-2 seconds before it starts to decay.

    This is unless the info is paid attention to, when it goes to the next store!

    CAPACITY

    Sensory memory holds approx…

    …3 items

    EVIDENCE – Sperling (1960)

    • Research Method?

    • Experimental Design?

    • Evaluation

      Strengths?

      Weaknesses?


    Stm summary

    STM Summary

    ENCODING

    Info held in…

    • …ACOUSTIC form

      We know this due to research into acoustic confusion errors

      e.g. Conrad, (1964) who found…

    DURATION

    Info held in STM lasts about…

    • …20-30 seconds before total decay. However, decay can occur very quickly. Only info which is rehearsed does not decay

      Peterson and Peterson

    CAPACITY

    Miller – Capacity of STM is…

    • …5-9 items.

      After this, new info displaces old info on the principle of FIFO…

      However, capacity can be increased via…

      CHUNKING!

    EVIDENCE – Peterson and Peterson

    • Found participants accurately recalled the trigrams after a 3 second interval (90% accuracy). However, after 18 seconds recall accuracy was only 2 %.

    • THIS SHOWS information is held in STM for a maximum of 20-30secs

    • HOWEVER ...


    L tm summary

    LTM Summary

    ENCODING

    Info held in…

    • …SEMANTIC form

      We know this due to research showing similar-meaning errors

      e.g. Baddeley, (1966) who found…

    DURATION

    Info held in LTM is…

    Potentially unlimitedHowever, if information is not used it may be lost vianatural decay

    CAPACITY

    Capacity of STM is…

    • unlimited.

      It is possible to lose info through processes such as decay and interference

      However,loss does not occure due to

      Capacity limitations

    EVIDENCE – Baddeley (1966)

    • Found …

    • THIS SHOWS information is encoded semantically …

    • HOWEVER ...


    Evaluation of msm

    Evaluation of MSM

    • Weaknesses

    • Flaws with the model

      • Doesn’t make real world sense

        • Importance of rehearsal?

        • Flashbulb memories?

      • Individual Differences

        • Levels of Processing

      • Too Simplistic

        • Schatcher et al.

    • Strengths

    • Supporting Research

      • Case Study Evidence

        • Clive Wearing

        • HM

      • Lab Experiments

        • Glazer and Cunitz

      • Brain Scans

        • PET/MRI

          BUT … Validity of supporting research is questionable…


    Working memory model

    Working Memory Model

    Incoming SENSORY info

    Central

    Executive

    Phonological Loop

    Subdivided into

    • Phonological store (inner ear)

    • Articulatory Process (inner voice)

    Visuo-Spatial

    Sketchpad

    EPISODIC BUFFER

    (added by Baddeley in 2000)

    LONG TERM MEMORY


    Wmm summary

    WMM Summary

    • Central executive

      • Registers all sensory info (‘modality free’)

      • Allocates ‘resources’ (slave systems)

      • Directs attention and monitors

      • Limited capacity

    • Visuo-spatial sketchpad

      • Processing of visual and spatial information

      • Subdivided into a visual cache and inner scribe (spatial) which have different functions…

    • Phonological Loop

      • Processing of auditory info

      • Phonological Store

        • ‘Inner ear’ – a passive storage system

      • Articulatory Process

        • ‘inner voice’ – an active rehearsal process to maintain info (subvocal repetition)

      • CAPACITY???

    • EPISODIC BUFFER

      • Processing of info which is both visual and verbal

    • Rehearsed info eventually goes to LTM

    • Info from LTM initially goes back into the central executive


    Evaluation of wmm

    Evaluation of WMM

    • BUT … Validity of supporting research is questionable…

  • Weaknesses

  • Flaws with the model

    • Limited

    • Too Simplistic

    • Incomplete

      • Role of the central executive is unclear

    • Strengths

    • Supporting Research

      • Case Study Evidence

        • KF

      • Lab Experiments

        • Baddeley & Hitch

      • Brain Scans

        • PET/MRI

    • Contribution to Psychology


    Eye witness testimony

    Eye Witness Testimony

    EWT is a legal term. It refers to an account given by people of an event (normally a crime or accident) they have witnessed

    • Why is EWT not accurate?

      • The nature of our memory

        • Reconstructive - We replace info, omit some, etc so reconstruction can lead to memory distortions

        • EWT is likely to rely on reconstructive memory so it’s not very accurate

        • There are many factors which can affect the accuracy of our eye witness memory schemas


    Factors affecting ewt

    Factors Affecting EWT

    Anxiety/ Stress

    • Negative correlation between anxiety and accuracy of EWT

    • Anxiety levels are often linked to the type of crime

    • Yerkes-Dodson Curve

  • Research into Anxiety …

    Loftus and BurnsYuille & Cutshall

  • Evaluation

  • Weapon focus

  • Age

    • Children and Older Adults

      • Findings show that both groups are less accurate in their EWT

      • Children

        • Social Pressure

        • Suggestible

        • Limited language and cognitive skills

      • Elderly

        • Easily distorted

        • Cog problems

    • Own Age Bias

    • Research …

    Misleading Info

    • Leading Questions

      • Leading q.s may suggest what happened and distort the memory

      • This distorts it because …

    • Research into Misleading info..

      Loftus & Palmer 1974

      Yuille & Cutshall

    • Evaluation


    Improving accuracy of ewt

    Improving accuracy of EWT

    • Cognitive Interview

      • Developed by Geiselman et al (1985)

      • More effective investigative tool as it leads to enhanced retrieval and significantly more detailed and accurate EWT

    • 4 stages:

      • Report Everything

      • Context Reinstatement

      • Report from Changed Perspective

      • Changed Order


    Evaluation of cognitive interview

    Evaluation of Cognitive Interview

    • Weaknesses

      • Evidence of inaccurate info being recalled

        • Koehnken (1999)

          • Cog Int leads to more info being recalled, but also more INACCURATE info

        • Kebbel (1999)

          • Survey of police officers – incorrect info and time to carry out

    • Strengths

      • Evidence of effectiveness

        • Geiselman (1985)

        • Ppts shown simulated crime

        • Interviewed using CI or SI

        • Found …

    Both Natural Experiments.

    This means….


    Evaluation of cognitive interview1

    Evaluation of Cognitive Interview

    • PRACTICAL DISADVANTAGES of using the CI

      • Such as...

    • LIMITED USE

      • Should not be used with...

        • People with low intelligence/verbal skills; CHILDREN

      • Why?

        • Instructions are too complex and these groups may not understand what is expected or be able to explain the event in detail

        • Geiselman (1999) - found that children under 6 yrs old are likely to be less accurate when the CI is used.

    • ETHICALLY QUESTIONABLE

      • On what basis?

      • Witness is asked to relive the event over and over which may cause...


    Memory improvement strategies

    Memory Improvement Strategies

    • Mnemonics are practical applications of cognitive theories and research as they have helped improve peoples’ lives at work, school, etc.

    • Mnemonics can take many forms. We looked at:

      • VERBAL Mnemonics

      • IMAGERY TECHNIQUES

      • ORGANISATION

      • ‘STATE DEPENDENT’ techniques


    Memory improvement strategies1

    Memory Improvement Strategies

    Imagery Techniques

    • Techniques involving item tbrm with a mental image so the 2 interact e.g.

      • Peg Word Method

      • Method of Loci

      • Face-Name system

    • These work because

      • Cues, dual coding & elaborative rehearsal

        Research into this technique…

    Organisation

    • Involves organising tbrm into organisational hierarchies.

      • Mind Maps

    • These work because …Dual Coding occurs as a visual representation is created

    State Dependent Techniques

    • Based on encoding specificity principle.

      • Involves recreating the context at the time of encoding for retrieval

    • These work because

      • Cues & dual coding

    Verbal Mnemonics

    • Techniques based on verbal strategies e.g.

      • Acronyms

      • Acrostics

      • These work by …

    • These work because

      • Cues & dual coding


    Next time

    Next Time

    Introduction to


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