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Internet for All. Internationalisation beyond English Accessibility for disabled Access as a necessity, not a luxury. Internet for All. Internet/Web should be available for everyone, including People who don ’ t know English People with disabilities

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internet for all
Internet for All
  • Internationalisation beyond English
  • Accessibility for disabled
  • Access as a necessity, not a luxury.
internet for all1
Internet for All
  • Internet/Web should be available for everyone, including
    • People who don’t know English
    • People with disabilities
  • Be aware of this when designing websites and software!
international internet
International Internet
  • Character sets
  • Localised web sites
  • Computer translation
character sets
Character Sets
  • ASCII – only English
    • Standard in USA?
    • Still used for Internet names
  • Latin1 – also other W Euro Latin alpha
    • French, German, Swedish, …
    • Accented chars, eg é ß å æ
    • Other, eg £ ¿
    • Standard in UK
unicode
Unicode
  • Unicode
    • Add support for Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Hebrew, Arabic, …
      • Also Linear B, Cherokee, hieroglyphics, …
      • http://www.unicode.org/charts/
  • Unicode is just a character set, need to install font as well
    • Complete Unicode font came with Office 2003
unicode1
Unicode
  • In principle supported by all major programming languages, web browsers, operating systems, etc.
    • Problems can arise, though
    • Java support for Unicode is not perfect
bidirectional texts
Bidirectional texts
  • English written left-to-right
  • Hebrew, Arabic written right-to-left
    • But embedded English left-to-right
    • Does strange things to page layout
international domain name
International Domain Name
  • Internet software/standards assume names are in ASCII
    • www.abdn.ac.uk -- OK
    • www.uquébec.ca -- not OK
      • www.uquebec.ca instead
  • Unfair ….
international domain names
International Domain Names
  • International Domain Names (IDN)
    • Allow Unicode in names
    • Based on encoding Unicode as ASCII
  • Spread is slow
    • Standard now agreed, but not yet universally implemented.
    • ICANN will allow Unicode top-level domains
localisation
Localisation
  • Web sites “localised” for different places
    • Language, currency, text direction, etc
      • Spelling: eg, colour vs color
    • Local news, offers
    • Culturally differences
      • Images: modestly dressed women for muslims
      • Names: Icelanders don’t have last names
example
Example
  • In-depth: office.microsoft.com
    • Requires a lot of work!
  • Shallower: google.com
internationalisation
Internationalisation
  • Making one web site (or Java app) which is maximally useful worldwide
    • Language: simple English
    • Forms: allow Unicode, don’t assume people have last names or postal codes
    • Avoid images that might offend some
translation
Translation
  • Ultimate goal is to let people read web pages in other languages
    • translate.google.co.uk
    • Quality variable, (slowly) getting better
    • Widely used by many non-English speakers
accessible internet
Accessible Internet
  • Not everyone uses mouse and (touch)screen to access the Internet!
  • Web accessibility should address their needs, including:
    • Visual, motor, auditory, cognitive disabilities and those affected by seizures.
  • How to help such people use the Internet?
    • With a little bit of effort, developers can really enhance accessibility.
visual disabilities
Visual Disabilities
  • Colour-blind
    • Developers: don’t assume people can see when something is red!
  • Poor vision
    • Need large fonts and screen magnifiers
    • Developers: DO NOT HARD-CODE FONTS IN WEB PAGES!!!
      • It may “look nice” to you, but means someone with poor vision cannot use it
visual disabilities1
Visual Disabilities
  • Blind
    • Screen readers: speak out web pages
    • Braille displays: display text in braille
    • Embossed printers: print braille
  • Screen readers most common
    • Essentially scan through a web page
    • Developers:
      • Include ALT tags for images
      • Remember that blind user will not “see” entire page!
motor disabilities
Motor Disabilities
  • Poor hand control
    • Use keyboard instead of mouse
    • Developers: allow keyboard control!!
  • No hand control (or no hands)
    • scanning interface, controlled by switch
      • Assistive tech., head switch, sip/puff
      • Maybe Eye tracking.
    • Need special interface
    • Often expensive
auditory
Auditory
  • If sound or spoken word is used, may need to find alternative ways to convey content to deaf or hard of hearing users.
cognitive disability
Cognitive Disability
  • General
    • Keep things simple and clear
  • Dyslexia
    • Avoid white backgrounds,
    • don’t justify texts (stretch to fit column),
    • avoid italics
seizures
Seizures
  • Be aware that photoepileptic seizures can be caused by flashing flights, particularly repeated strobe effects.
disabilities
Disabilities
  • Plenty of guidelines exist
    • http://www-03.ibm.com/able/guidelines
  • Following them makes websites more useful to disabled people, probably helps normal people as well
    • Helps mobile access in particular
  • Just need to make the effort!
accessibility guidelines
Accessibility Guidelines
  • The W3C has provided a set of web content accessibility guidelines
  • Now accepted as ISO/IEC 40500:2012.
legal aspects
Legal Aspects
  • Increasing legal requirement that websites be accessible to disabled
    • Especially for (quasi-)government sites, such as Aberdeen University
    • E.g., the Jodhan decision in Canada.
  • Good business sense as well
    • Biggest disabled group is elderly, and they have lots of money to spend
legal aspects uk
Legal Aspects (UK)
  • UK Equality Act. E.G. The RNIB says it may be unlawful for a website to:
    • ``have links on that are not accessible to a screen reader
    • have application forms (for instance, for bank accounts or job application forms) in a PDF format that cannot be read by a screen reader
    • have core service information (for instance, timetables on a public transport website) that is not in a format accessible to screen readers.
    • use text, colour contrasting and formatting that make the website inaccessible to a partially sighted service user
    • change security procedures (for instance, on an e-commerce website) without considering the impact of blind and partially sighted customers that use screen readers.’’
internet for all2
Internet For All
  • Developers (us) have moral duty to make our products available to all
    • People with limited English
    • People with disabilities
  • Also legal duty, sensible business
  • Tools exist, we need to use them!
recap helping everyone
Recap: Helping Everyone
  • Internet should benefit everyone.
  • Essential for fair society!
helping everyone
Helping Everyone
  • How should Internet be used in third-world countries?
    • Bangladesh vs India vs Chile
    • Much use via mobile devices now.
  • How can Internet help people at “bottom of heap” in UK?
    • Will growth of Internet hurt people who cannot or will not use it?
helping everyone1
Helping Everyone
  • How can we make websites universally useful?
    • Non-English speakers
    • disabled
  • How should the Internet be controlled (governed)?
    • So that it helps everyone!
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