Overview of projects of conceptual model development for archival description
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Overview of projects of conceptual model development for archival description. Workshop on Conceptual modeling for Archives, Libraries and Museums Helsinki, Finland, January 28-29, 2010 Claire Sibille , Archives of France , secretary of the ICA committee on B est Practices and Standards.

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Overview of projects of conceptual model development for archival description

Overview of projects of conceptual model development for archival description

Workshop on Conceptual modeling for Archives, Libraries and Museums

Helsinki, Finland, January 28-29, 2010

Claire Sibille, Archives of France, secretary of the ICA committee on Best Practices and Standards


This talk will cover

This talk will cover:

  • Basic rules and standards for archival description

  • Projects for an archival conceptual model

    • ICA/Committee on Best Practices and Standards

    • An example of ICA standards implementation (and of their relationships) : ICA-AtoM software

    • NEDA project (Spain)

    • Series system and recordkeeping metadata project (Australia)

  • Elements of discussion


Archives

Archives

  • “Materials created or received by a person, family, or organization, public or private, in the conduct of their affairs and preserved because of the enduring value contained in the information they contain or as evidence of the functions and responsibilities of their creator, especially those materials maintained using the principles of provenance, original order, and collective control.”

    (Society of American Archivists, A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology)


Provenance

Provenance

  • “Provenance is a fundamental principle of archives, referring to the individual, family, or organization that created or received the items in a collection. The principle of provenance or the respect des fonds dictates that records of different origins (provenance) be kept separate to preserve their context.”

    (Society of American Archivists, A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology)


Original order

Original order

  • Order in which it was maintained when it was last used by its creator(s)

  • The principle of original order, therefore, dictates that, wherever possible, this order must be retained when an archive is arranged

  • In some cases however, it is accepted that the original order of an archive may not be discernible and, in such cases, the archivist is free to impose a sensible order of his/her own


Hierarchical model of the levels of arrangement for a fonds

Hierarchical model of the levels of arrangement for a fonds


Multilevel description

Multilevel Description

  • Archival arrangement is reflected in the description of archives through the use of multilevel description

    • Describe from the general to the specific

    • The information provided should be relevant to the level of description

    • Descriptions should be linked

    • Information should not be repeated


Contextual description

Contextual description

  • Provenance is the primary locus of archival intellectual control and description

  • Describing archives means providing information about their creators and about the historical context of their creation

  • Sometimes, the relationships of records with the functions that generated them are more important than the relationships of the records with the organizations that created them


Ica standards

ICA standards

  • ISAD(G) (1994, 1999) => archival materials

  • ISAAR(CPF) (1996, 2004) => entities (corporate bodies, persons and families) associated with the creation and maintenance of archives

    • ISDF (2008) => functions of entities associated with the creation and maintenance of archival materials

    • ISDIAH (2008) => institutions with archival holdings (archival institutions, museums, libraries, etc.)


Encoding standards

Encoding standards

  • EAD = Encoded Archival Description (DTD,1998, 2002; XML schema [non finalized], 2007) => archival materials

  • EAC-CPF = Encoded Archival Context (XML schema, 2010) => corporate bodies, persons, families

    • EAC-F = Encoded Archival Context - Functions (project) => functions of entities associated with the creation and maintenance of archival materials

    • EAG = Encoded Archival Guide => institutions with archival holdings (archival institutions, museums, libraries, etc.)


Problems with ica standards

Problems with ICA standards

  • Provide standardized sets of elements for describing archival materials, their repositories, their creators, and functions of the creators

  • Modeling is the next phase, the one in which entities are identified as well as their attributes and we can form the network of relationships among data elements

    • For instance, ISAAR(CPF) and ISDIAH entities share numerous attributes; an entity which is an institution with archival holdings is also going to be an entity which creates and maintains records


Problems with ead

Problems with EAD

  • EAD is document centric standard, not a data-centric standard

  • Archival description is hierarchical, but we need to be able to form complete and flexible system of archival description that would interrelate record description, creator description and the description of functions and activities

    • reveal relationships within a single fonds that a hierarchical representation alone does not reveal


Eac cpf

EAC-CPF

  • EAC-CPF is more data-centric: it defines a set of elements used to describe agent entities and the structure of interrelationships amongst those elements

  • EAC-CPF has been created to accommodate a variety of identities

  • Several projects aim to develop, implement and test the integration of EAC-CPF in existing international archival description and name authority systems


Ica work in progress

ICA work in progress

  • The Committee on Best Practices and Standards (CBPS) develops a single reference model for descriptive standards, enabling archivists

    • to describe different types of entities

    • to document these entities in relationship to each other at particular points of time, or over time

  • Using the ICA’s descriptive standards, it is now possible to develop a three-entity model for archival description


Entities relationships model

Entities / Relationships Model

Functions

are documented in / document

are done by / do

are created and used by

Agents (CPF)

Archival materials

create and use


Linking ica standards

Linking ICA standards


Ica atom

ICA-AtoM

  • Acronym for 'Access to Memory’; an example of implementation of ICA standards (their relationships)

  • Web-based, open-source, multi-lingual archival description software

  • Enables institutions to make their archival holdings available online, especially those who could not otherwise afford to do so

  • Supports multi-repository collections

  • ICA-AtoM architecture includes a number of entity types


Ica atom entities and their relationships

ICA-AtoM: entities and their relationships


Spain neda project

Spain, NEDA project

  • NEDA = Normas Españolas de Descripción archivística (Spanish standards for archival description)

  • Commission appointed by the Ministry of Culture to develop a conceptual model for archival description and requirements of basic data for describing archival materials and functions

  • Part 1 was published in 2009 (identifying types of entities)

    http://en.www.mcu.es/archivos/MC/CNEDA/Documentos.html


Neda entities and their relationships

NEDA: entities and their relationships

do / are done by

Agents

Functions

Mandates

create and manage / are created and managed by

govern / are governed by

document / are documented in

Archival materials

have for subject / are subjects of

have for subject / are subjects of

Subjects

Places


Neda types and subtypes of entities

NEDA: types and subtypes of entities

do / are done by

Agent

Person

Family

Corporate body

Functions

Sub-functions

Activities/Processes

Transactions

Mandates

create and manage / are created and managed by

govern / are governed by

document / are documented in

Archival materials

Recordgroup

Series

File ...

have for subject / are subjects of

have for subject / are subjects of

Subjects

Places


The australian series system

The Australian Series System

  • Used to describe both 'current' and 'historical' records

    • A more dynamic approach to the intellectual control of records

  • Accommodates documentation of multiple provenance

    • The series is the highest level of archival description

    • Creation of separate but linked descriptions of records, records creators and their functions and activities

    • The series system does not require fonds-level descriptive inputs, but it is capable of generating fonds-level descriptive outputs whenever such outputs are needed


Recordkeeping metadata project

Recordkeeping Metadata Project


Recordkeeping metadata project1

Recordkeeping Metadata Project


Recordkeeping metadata project2

Recordkeeping Metadata Project


Elements of discussion

Elements of discussion

  • A few standards and related formats but only modeling projects

  • Archivists are interested in modeling for providing interoperability in collaborative projects

    • For instance, the APEnet portal will enable archival resources to be harvested by the EUROPEANA


Elements of discussion1

Elements of discussion

  • Methodology:

    • to start from conceptual models developed for ICA-AtoM or in Spain and in Australia and from the EAD mapping to CIDOC-CRM with a constant reference to ICA standards

    • or to develop a conceptual model from ICA standards on the basis of the other modeling projects


Elements of discussion2

Elements of discussion

  • Methodology: one archival entity with 3 sub-types (for archival materials, agents and functions)

    • develop a common entity-type (super-type) based on attributes common to ISAD, ISAAR/ISDIAH and ISDF which might never be used to document anything but which would confer attributes on the sub-types (for instance, existence date)

    • bring the 3 sub-types into alignment with the super-type and with each other

    • the sub-entities could be used to confer attributes on sub-sub-entities


Elements of discussion3

Elements of discussion

  • Methodology:

    • identify classes/subclasses and properties for archives

    • for instance, the archival entity Function could be broken down into multiple classes, each with specific properties, and the class E7 Activity could be enriched from ISDF

    • see whether targets of the properties are appropriate for archives


Elements of discussion4

Elements of discussion

  • Work plan

    • periodicity of meetings

    • funding

    • participants (required competencies for developing a conceptual model)

    • relationships with ICA work (a meeting is planned at the end of May at Paris) and with EAD evolutions


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