the anglo saxon and medieval periods 449 1485
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The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Periods 449-1485. By: Mr. Nathan J. Harmon. The Anglo-Saxon Period = The DARK AGES Violence! Conflict! Barbarians! Serious: Hero epics Struggle Only the strong survive. Centuries of INVASION. Early Britian. 55b.c Ceasar claimed the British Isle

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centuries of invasion

The Anglo-Saxon Period = The DARK AGES

    • Violence!
    • Conflict!
    • Barbarians!
      • Serious: Hero epics
        • Struggle
        • Only the strong survive
Centuries of INVASION
early britian
Early Britian
  • 55b.c Ceasar claimed the British Isle
    • He left! Took off and left Britons, Picts, Gaels in peace
    • 100 years later the Romans returned
      • Britian became a Roman province
      • Build: roads, cities, scholarship
early britain continued
Early Britain (continued…)
  • “Romanized”
    • Christianity
    • Urban lifestyle
    • Public baths
    • Military
  • Dependence
    • Britians came to depend on Roman Government
      • 5th Century Turns
        • Roman left to deal with their own invaders
anglo saxons
  • Germanic tribes
  • Celtic Leader: Arthur
  • King Arthur?
    • Fought the invading hordes
    • Driven out to the west (Cornwall & Wales) and north (Scotland)
  • New settlers
    • Angle-Land
      • England
      • Anglo-Saxon culture became the base for English culture
      • Old English: the gutteral sound of the people

790’s: New Invaders from Denmark & Norway

  • Crazy Men!
    • Looting
    • Killing
    • Burning villages
    • Summer homes?
vikings continued
Vikings !! (continued…)
  • Preferred the winter in England than their homes, they set up camp
  • The Danes!
    • Met defeat by Alfred the Great (Anglo-Saxon)
      • Alfie unified England
        • Brought education, learning, and culture
        • The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: a record of England
the norman conquest
The Norman Conquest
  • Edward the Confessor
    • Descendant of Alfie, had no kids
  • Promised the Crown
    • French cousin William (so he claimed)
  • Nobles and the Church
    • Endorsed Earl Harold
  • Williams Response:
    • Norman Invasion!
    • Harold died Battle of Hastings 1066
    • Christmas day 1066 William was crowned
    • William the Conqueror
  • The Norman Invasion ended the Anglo-Saxon dominance of Britain
    • New Nobles
      • Out with the old
  • The former Noble class of Anglo-Saxons sank into the peasant class
cultural influences
Cultural Influences
  • The Spread of Christianity
    • Invaders: Pagan, belief in “Wyrd” (fate)
    • Strong hero worship: Strength against “evil”
  • Christianity Takes Hold
    • 300 A.D several missionaries were establiched
    • Spread to Ireland/Scotland
christianity taking hold
Christianity taking hold
  • 597A.D Roman missionary Augustine enters Kent.
  • Est. Canterbury
    • Monastaries became centers of education, literacy, art, and social activity
  • Spread rapidly
    • By 690 A.D all of Britain was nominally Christian
      • Though many held pagan traditions
venerable bede
Venerable Bede
  • Wrote: A history of the English Church and People
    • Vikings plundered monasteries, tried to destroy the culture
    • Christianity endured
epic tradition
Epic Tradition
  • Early lit. style
    • Heroic deeds
  • Mead Halls
    • Poems performed by Scops
  • History
  • Sermon
  • Pep talk
    • Cultural pride
    • Demonstrates behavior
  • Oral art form
  • As religion spread
    • Education spread
    • Writing spread
    • Oral tradition died out
      • Beowulf survives…
the medieval period

The Monarchy: William the Conqueror

  • New kind of King: Powerful, organized, intelligent
  • Law and Order
    • “any honest man could travel over the kingdom without injury with his bosom full of gold”
    • Doomsday Book: a tax that recorded and taxed all property: lakes, livestock, etc.
  • William’s death
    • Power struggles
    • Near anarchy
      • Until…
The Medieval Period
williams great grandson
Williams great grandson
  • Henry Plantagenet= Henry II
    • Reformed the judicial system
    • Est. juries
    • Formed common law
    • His son: Richard I = Richard the Lion-hearted
      • Ten-year reign fighting abroad
      • Brother plotted against him
      • “King John”: fought with nobles about rising taxes
        • Forced to sign the magna carta which limited royal power
war plague
War & Plague

War was near constant

The Hundred Years’ War

1337: England vs. France

Black Death

killed 1/3 of the pop.

1453: England lost almost all French holdings.

Two Families fought for power

York (white rose)

Lancaster (red rose)

War of the Roses

the tudors
The Tudors
  • Wars of the Roses ended in 1485
  • Henry Tudor (Lancaster) killed Richard III (York) at Bosworth field
  • Henry took the throne = Henry VII
  • End of the Middle Ages
three social forces
Three Social Forces
  • The Feudal System
    • Feudalism: political and Economic system (implemented by William the conqueror)
    • King owns all
      • ¼ for himself
      • ¼ for the church
      • The rest to the nobles
        • Nobles gave land to knights
        • Serfs= bound to land they didn’t own (Anglo-Saxons)
        • Everyone paid upwards toward the king
three social forces continued
Three Social Forces (continued…)
  • The church
    • Led by the Pope (in Rome)
    • Huge powerhouse
      • Levy taxes
      • Laws
      • Courts
      • Keeping kings in line
three social forces1
Three Social Forces
  • Chivalry and Courtly Love
    • Medieval literature: created an idea of social conduct
    • Chivalry: code of honor intended to guide knightly behavior
    • Courtly Love: Relationship ideas between lords and ladies
      • “the Art of Courtly Love”
        • Marriage is no real excuse for not loving
        • He who is jealous cannot love
        • When made public, love rarely endures
        • A new love puts an old one to flight
        • Every lover regularly turns pale in the prescience of his beloved
the age of chaucer
The Age of Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer: Father of English Literature

showed English as a literary language

Wrote in the language of the time: middle English

the canterbury tales
The Canterbury Tales
  • Chaucer’s best known work
  • Collection of tales
  • The Pilgrims characters tell stories
  • They reflected English development such as: the serfs realizing their value (workforce), War with France re-est. English as a ruling class language
medieval romance
Medieval Romance


King Arthur and Excalibur

Legendary Hero: King Arthur


Britain of roman influence

King Arthur to Wales as Beowulf to Anglo-Saxon

Geoffrey of Monmouth: produced welsh tales that caught the interest of the French , German, English alike

king arthur artorius
King Arthur: Artorius
  • Inspired German, English, French to create their own versions of King Arthur and the Round Table
  • Made chivalry something to aspire to in English courts
  • Feats, Battles, Ideals
    • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
    • Death of Arthur
      • Retold the legendary King’s end in, printed weeks before the final battle of the War of Roses: the last battle fought with knights in armor