Animal Waste Management
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Animal Waste Management. Animal Waste Management. Outline Manure/Waste Characteristics Animal Waste Handling Systems Sampling. What is Manure or Waste?. Manure = Feces + Urine as excreted Waste = Manure + Bedding + Wasted feed + Leaked water + etc. Manure/Waste Quantity and Composition.

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Animal Waste Management


  • Manure/Waste Characteristics

  • Animal Waste Handling Systems

  • Sampling

What is manure or waste
What is Manure or Waste?

  • Manure = Feces + Urine as excreted

  • Waste = Manure + Bedding + Wasted feed + Leaked water + etc

Manure waste quantity and composition
Manure/Waste Quantity and Composition

Depends on:

  • Animal species

  • Diet - digestibility, protein, fiber content

  • Animal age & productivity

  • Number of animals

  • Waste handling system (added H20, bedding)

Units of measure
Units of Measure

  • Manure production

    • lbs/day/1000 lbs live weight

    • lbs/animal/day

    • Gallons or ft3/day/1000 lb live weight

Nutrients in manure
Nutrients in Manure

Major Nutrients (N, P, and K)

  • Presented in terms of nutrient itself (N, P, K)

  • Commercial Fertilizer expressed as

    • Nitrogen – N

    • Phosphorus - P205

    • Potassium - K2O

  • Must convert!!!

    Other Nutrients

  • Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Cl

Example manure production
Example: Manure Production

For A dairy farm milking 100 cows a day, determine:

  • Mass of manure produced per day

  • Volume of manure per day

  • Pounds of N, P, and K produced per day

  • Storage capacity required on the farm if the manure is to be stored for three months

Generally classified as liquid slurry solid depending upon solids content

Manure/Waste Classification

Generally classified as liquid, slurry, solid depending upon solids content

  • Liquid< 5% solids

  • Slurry 5-20% solids

  • Solid >20% solids

Solids content determines how manure or waste is handled

Manure waste handling system
Manure/Waste Handling System


  • Housing facility

  • Collection and transfer

  • Storage/Treatment

  • Transport

  • Utilization

Manure waste handling systems
Manure/Waste Handling Systems

  • All Systems start with production by animals

  • All systems end with utilization

    • Common - land application as a fertilizer for crop production

  • No System is best

Solid semi solid systems
Solid/Semi Solid Systems

  • System of choice for most poultry operations

  • Material from dairies often not “dry” enough to stack well

  • Separated solids but separating liquids and solids mean two sets of manure handling equipment

  • Separate runoff/leachate holding facilities may be required

Deep - pack

  • Sometimes used for swine, beef, and dairy production

  • Results in semi-composted solid waste

Liquid systems
Liquid Systems

  • Common in swine and dairy production

  • Allows greater automation of manure collection with flush systems

Components of liquid systems
Components of Liquid Systems

  • Collection

    • Flush (gutter or slotted floor)

    • Scrape (tractor or cable)

  • Transfer

    • Conveyor - auger

    • Pump

    • Gravity channel, pipes

  • Storage

    • Tanks – steel or concrete

    • Earthen basin or lagoon

  • Transport

    • Tank wagon

    • Irrigation system

Manure treatment
Manure Treatment


  • Stabilize manure

  • Odor reduction

  • Nutrient management

  • Energy recovery

  • Pathogen reduction

  • Reduce gaseous emissions

Some manure treatment options











Some Manure Treatment Options

Manure treatment systems principles
Manure Treatment Systems - Principles

  • Biological processes

    • Anaerobic (w/out oxygen)

    • Aerobic (with oxygen)

  • Chemical Treatment

  • Physical processes e.g. solids separation

Why treat manure water quality concerns
Why Treat Manure: Water Quality Concerns

Example on farm swine manure treatment system
Example: On-Farm Swine Manure Treatment System

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

Liquid solid separator with polymer pam
Liquid-Solid Separator with Polymer (PAM)

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

Nitrification for ammonia removal



Nitrification for Ammonia Removal

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

Phosphorus separation module
Phosphorus Separation Module

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

Anaerobic lagoon was transformed into aerobic pond
Anaerobic Lagoon was Transformed into “Aerobic” Pond



Sept. 2002

Sept. 2003

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

Covered In-Ground Anaerobic Digester

Source: Cheng, NC State Univ.

Tomato Production in Greenhouse using treated swine lagoon liquid

Nitrification Biofilters

Source: Cheng, NC State Univ.

Some questions to ask when selecting a treatment system
Some Questions to ask when Selecting a Treatment System liquid

  • What happens to nutrients

  • How do products of the treatment system impact the environment, regulations

  • Pathogen reduction

  • Energy generated and/or consumed by system

  • Pretreatment necessary?

  • Operation and maintenance

  • Installed anywhere?

  • $$$$ COST $$$$

Utilization liquid

  • energy (methane generation)

  • bedding (separated solids)

  • mulch

  • organic matter

  • plant nutrients

Testing manure waste
Testing Manure/Waste liquid

  • Test manure at least once a year

  • Actual data much better than tabulated

  • Variation due to diet, animal age, handling, storage, etc

Sampling manure
Sampling Manure liquid

  • Required at least annually

  • Must be “representative”

  • Actual samples much more reliable than tabulated values

Representative sampling from liquid storage
Representative Sampling from Liquid Storage liquid

  • Best time to sample is just before land application

  • Agitation critical—nitrogen and potassium can be characterized by sampling a vertical profile, but phosphorus can not.

  • Continuous agitation needed to assure phosphorus remains in solution

Sampling a lagoon
Sampling a lagoon liquid

  • Want to sample vertical profile - don’t need to sample sludge layer, unless the sludge is to be removed or lagoon is being closed

  • Use a tube to sample entire profile or

  • Sample at 5 or 6 discrete locations and composite sample

Sampling solid semi solid manure
Sampling Solid/Semi-solid Manure liquid

  • Use a 3’ long piece of metal tubing with handles attached to get sampler into pile

  • Pull samples from 10 to 15 locations

  • Composite samples, mix well

Shipping samples
Shipping Samples liquid

  • Freeze if they can’t be shipped immediately

  • For liquids, fill a plastic quart container with screw-on lid about 2/3 full

  • For solids, place in gallon-sized plastic bag, twist and tie tightly

  • Label all samples with name, sample number, location and test date

Safety considerations
Safety Considerations liquid

  • Dangerous gases (e.g. Hydrogen Sulfide) are produced when an anaerobic manures are agitated. If possible remove animals from building. If not, ventilate at highest rate.

  • Methane gas is a concern due to explosive nature especially in confined spaces