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UNIT 6. SECTIONAL CRISIS AND CIVIL WAR. WESTWARD EXPANSION AND SLAVERY. Mexican War (1846-1848) Wilmot Proviso (1846) would prohibit slavery in any territory secured from Mexico compromise ideas: extend the Missouri Compromise line “squatter sovereignty” Election of 1848

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Unit 6

UNIT 6

SECTIONAL CRISIS AND CIVIL WAR


Westward expansion and slavery
WESTWARD EXPANSION AND SLAVERY

  • Mexican War (1846-1848)

    • Wilmot Proviso (1846)

      • would prohibit slavery in any territory secured from Mexico

      • compromise ideas:

        • extend the Missouri Compromise line

        • “squatter sovereignty”

  • Election of 1848

    • each party attempts to avoid the slavery issue in the new territories

    • the party system began to break down

      • Free Soil Party (1848)

        • abolitionists and antislavery Whigs



Compromise of 1850
COMPROMISE OF 1850

  • Slavery and the new western territories:

    • Gold Rush (1849)—massive influx of people to California

    • December 1849—California submits application for statehood with a constitution prohibiting slavery

  • Taylor wants to resolve the issue on the local level but:

    • congressional opposition

    • heated issues between North and South

      • fugitive slave law

      • slave trade in Washington DC

    • Southern fear over power balance in Congress

    • 1850—MS calls for a states rights convention in Nashville to consider secession



Compromise of 18501
COMPROMISE OF 1850

  • January 1850—Henry Clay (73), Daniel Webster (68), John Calhoun (68)

    • fail to resolve conflict after six months of debate

  • June 1850—younger generation emerges

    • Stephen Douglas (D-ILL) (37)

      • breaks large will into smaller bills

      • passes each on individually





  • Compromise of 18502
    COMPROMISE OF 1850

    • California admitted as a free state

    • no restrictions on slavery in the remaining Mexican territories

      • popular sovereignty—people of the territory decide whether to allow slavery or not

    • slave trade abolished in Washington DC

    • passage of a stronger fugitive slave law



    Reorganization of political parties
    REORGANIZATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES

    • Compromise of 1850

      • continued the breakdown of the Whig Party and the “southernization” of the Democratic Party

      • Election of 1852—“Conscience Whigs” defect to Free Soil Party

      • emergence of antislavery congressional leaders

      • northern resistance to fugitive slave laws

        • mob resistance

        • personal liberty laws

      • continued rise of Nativism

        • “Know-Nothing” Party


    Continuing sectional tensions 1850 s
    CONTINUING SECTIONAL TENSIONS (1850’S)

    • expansionism and continued sectional conflict

      • Ostend Manifesto (1854)

        • called Cuba a “natural part of the US”

        • US offers Spain to accept $120 million for Cuba

        • threatens US invasion if not accepted

        • Spain threatens to free and arm millions of slaves to defend Cuba

          • filibusters—private military expeditions directed at Cuba

      • rejected by Congress

        • abolitionists see it as evidence of the slave power conspiracy


    Kansas nebraska act 1854
    KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT (1854)

    • Transcontinental Railroad

      • Southerners favored a line from St. Louis, Memphis, or New Orleans to California

        • Gadsden Purchase (1853)—US purchases part tract of northern Mexico

      • Northerners favor a line from Chicago to California

    • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

      • Douglas introduces a bill that would create two territories, Nebraska and Kansas

        • popular sovereignty—people of the territory decide whether to allow slavery or not

        • repeals the Missouri Compromise



    Kansas nebraska act 18541
    KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT (1854)

    • Results:

      • destroys the Whig Party for good

      • transformed the Democratic Party into the Southern Party

      • leads to the formation of the antislavery Republican Party

        • antislavery Whigs, antislavery Democrats, and Free Soilers


    Bleeding kansas 1854 1861
    BLEEDING KANSAS (1854-1861)

    • Kansas became ground zero in the battle over slavery

      • pro and anti-slavery settlers began pouring into Kansas

      • 1855—proslavery forces elect a majority of the legislature (Lecompton)

      • 1856—free-staters elect their own government (Lawrence)

      • state erupts in fighting between pro and antislavery forces

        • proslavery group burns headquarters of Lawrence government

        • Pottawatomie Massacre (John Brown)

        • caning of Charles Sumner by Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC)




    Free soil free labor ideology
    FREE SOIL, FREE LABOR IDEOLOGY

    • abolitionism had created some moral support for the injustice of slavery

    • most whites were most concerned with what slavery did to whites

    • free labor—defines American freedom as property ownership, small-scale capitalism

    • viewed the South as anti-democratic

      • rejects individualism and progressivism

    • “slave power conspiracy” to spread slavery threatened Northern freedom of labor and soil

    • becomes the ideological foundation of the Republican Party


    Proslavery ideology
    PROSLAVERY IDEOLOGY

    • up until the early 1830’s, many white Southerners had reservations about slavery

      • by the mid-1830’s, an increaingly militant defense of slavery

        • slave rebellions (Nat Turner)

        • increased reliance on cotton

        • attacks by abolitionists (Garrison)

        • Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe)

    • blacks needed white guidance (paternalism)

    • slaves have a better standard of living than white northern labor

    • only means for the two races to live peaceably together

    • North viewed as corrupt and destructive

    • “northern” abolitionist conspiracy


    Final steps to civil war 1857 1860
    FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)

    • Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)

      • Court’s decision:

        • Scott was not a legal citizen

        • slaves are not US citizens

          • slaves do not have constitutional rights

        • the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

          • Congress had no authority to regulate slavery


    Final steps to civil war 1857 18601
    FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)

    • The Impending Crisis of the South (Rowan Helper)

      • attacked the political economy of slavery and the planter aristocracy

      • small Southern farmers had no way of making a profitable living like those of the free soil North

      • warned of revolutionary violence by white non-slaveholders

      • led to panic and paranoia in both North and South


    Final steps to civil war 1857 18602
    FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)

    • Continuing Crisis in Kansas

    • 1858—Congress had to choose between two different state governments and constitutions

      • one passes the House; rejected by the Senate

      • splits the Democratic Party into Northern and Southern branches


    Final steps to civil war 1857 18603
    FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)

    Lincoln—Douglas Debates (1858)

    • Lincoln:

      • Founding Fathers had recognized the inconsistency between the Declaration and slavery

        • they had abolished the slave trade and abolished slavery in the north

      • accuses Democrats of:

        • conspiring to extend slavery into the free states and territories

        • denying free labor in the West

      • rejects black and white social equality

      • “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”


    Lincoln douglas debates 1858
    LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES (1858)

    • Douglas:

      • defends popular sovereignty

      • Founders recognized that slavery was a local institution

      • Freeport Doctrine

        • people of a territory could effectively exclude slavery by refusing to enact slave codes

      • accuses Republicans:

        • wanting to interfere with slavery in the South

        • advocating black and white social equality

        • little difference between discrimination toward blacks in the North and black slavery in the South


    Final steps to civil war 1857 18604
    FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)

    • John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry (October 1859)

      • Brown concocts a plan to invade Virginia and arm its slaves by seizing the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry

      • financial support from “Secret Six” (Boston abolitionists, philanthropists, and clergy)

      • event impacted forces on both sides of the slavery issue:

        • Northern sympathy for Brown shocked the South more than the actual raid

        • played on Southern fears of slave rebellions


    Final steps to civil war 1857 18605
    FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)

    • Election of 1860

      • Abraham Lincoln (Republican)

        • antislavery

        • high tariffs

        • internal improvements

        • transcontinental railroad financed by the government

      • John Breckenridge (Southern Democrats)

      • Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrats)

    • Lincoln wins the presidency with a mere 40% of the popular vote



    Final attempts to avoid civil war
    FINAL ATTEMPTS TO AVOID CIVIL WAR

    • Secession

      • South Carolina withdraws from the Union (December 20, 1860)

      • seven states secede before Lincoln even assumes office

        • Dec. 20, 1860—SC

        • Jan. 9, 1861—MS

        • Jan. 10, 1861—FL

        • Jan. 11, 1861—AL

        • Jan. 19, 1861—GA

        • Jan. 26, 1861—LA

        • Feb. 1, 1861—TX


    Final attempts to avoid war
    FINAL ATTEMPTS TO AVOID WAR

    • upper southern states do not secede initially (VA, KY, TN, NC, ARK)

    • begin looking for some compromise to resolve the crisis

      • Crittenden Compromise

        • restore the Missouri Compromise line

        • guaranteed federal protection of slavery in all states and any future territories south of the line

        • federal government compensation to slaveowners for escaped slaves


    The civil war beginnings of the war
    THE CIVIL WAR:BEGINNINGS OF THE WAR

    • Ft. Sumter (South Carolina)

      • Lincoln sends naval ships with non-military supplies

      • April 12, 1861—firing on Ft. Sumter

      • April15—VA secedes, followed shortly by ARK, TN, and NC

      • four border slave states stay in the Union (KY, MD, DL, MZ)

    • Lincoln’s strategy

      • Anaconda strategy

        • pressure Virginia (Richmond)

        • seize control of the Mississippi River

      • lack of military readiness on both sides


    The fighting begins first battle of bull run
    THE FIGHTING BEGINS: FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN

    • First Battle of Bull Run(July 21, 1861)

      • (35,000 Union, 21,000 Confederate)

    • Results:

      • impact on northern and southern morale

      • dispelled notion of a quick and decisive war

      • destroyed Lincoln’s faith in his generals

      • first Confiscation Act (1861)

        • Union will confiscate any Southern property, including slaves

        • Union Army use of fugitive slave labor



    Mobilizaton the south
    MOBILIZATON: THE SOUTH

    • THE SOUTH

      • spring 1861

        • eleven states have seceded

        • created the Confederate States of America

      • issues with Confederate government:

        • weak government system

          • single-party system

          • state sovereignty

          • economic issues


    Mobilizaton the south1
    MOBILIZATON: THE SOUTH

    • MILITARY ADVANTAGES:

      • military experience of Confederate officer corps

      • Fighting to defend its own territory

        • did not have to conquer the North

        • did not have to destroy the Union’s industrial base

        • did not have to destroy the Union army

        • no need for occupation forces

        • short supply lines

        • “home field” advantage

        • friendly civilian population

      • availability of slave labor

      • rural, isolated societies




    Mobilizaton the south2
    MOBILIZATON: THE SOUTH

    • MILITARY DISADVANTAGES:

      • inferior navy

      • lack of foreign support

      • much smaller population

      • lack of industrial strength

      • lack of financial resources


    Mobilization the north
    MOBILIZATION: THE NORTH

    • MILITARY ADVANTAGES:

      • naval superiority

      • larger population of fighting age men

      • large and expandable industrial base

      • large and growing financial resources


    Mobilization the north1
    MOBILIZATION: THE NORTH

    • MILITARY DISADVANTAGES:

      • forced to fight offensively

      • forced to destroy the ability and will of the South to continue fighting

      • fighting on unfamiliar ground

      • hostile civilian population (seen as an occupier)

      • long supply lines

      • troops required for occupation and fighting


    Military strategy and tactics
    MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS

    • The Confederacy

      • defend the political and territorial independence of the Confederacy

      • “dispersed defensive” strategy

        • fight long enough for northern public support to waver

        • force Union attacks at well-defended defensive positions

          • cause large Union casualty numbers


    Military strategy and tactics1
    MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS

    • The North

      • Phase I (1861)

        • inflict military defeats on Confederate army

        • establish Union control in border states

        • convince Southerners to change their course

      • Phase II (1861-1862)

        • conquer large expanses of Southern territory

        • by Spring 1862:

          • Union army has captured 50,000 square miles in TN and lower MS Valley

          • poised to capture Richmond


    Military strategy and tactics2
    MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS

    • Phase III (1863-64)

      • “unconditional surrender”

      • destroy the Confederate army

      • Vicksburg/Gettysburg-turning points

    • Phase IV (1864-1865)

      • “total war”

      • destroy the South’s capacity and willingness to wage war

      • wage war on Southern society

        • Sherman’s March to the Sea





    Turning point battles
    TURNING POINT BATTLES

    • The Western Theater—Vicksburg (July 1863)

      • the fortress town had frustrated Union attempts at capture for months

      • Grant finally lays siege and ceaselessly bombards the town

      • starved Confederates into submission after two months

      • gave Union control of the Mississippi River

      • opened the Deep South for invasion (Sherman’s March)









    Turning point battles1
    TURNING POINT BATTLES

    • The Eastern Theater—Gettysburg

    • (July 1-3, 1863)

      • 90,000 Union vs. 75,000 Confederates

      • Union positioned on the high ground

      • Lee orders three flanking movements that fail

      • July 2—Lee orders Gen. George Pickett to attack the Union center on Cemetery Ridge

        • of 15,000, only 5,000 make it to the top

      • in three days, Lee has lost 1/3 of his army








    Wartime politics
    WARTIME POLITICS

    • Republican wartime legislation

      • instituted the first military draft in US history (1862)

      • established a system of land-grant colleges

      • Homestead Act (1862)—promised a plot of land to all free settlers in the West

      • transcontinental railroad


    Wartime politics1
    WARTIME POLITICS

    • Expansion of Presidential Power

      • Congress never declared war

        • “domestic insurrection”

          • enforcement action under presidential police powers

          • did not want to legitimize the Confederacy

      • Lincoln increased the size of the US military without legislative authority

      • Lincoln unilaterally ordered a naval blockade of the South


    Wartime politics2
    WARTIME POLITICS

    • Lincoln Administration suppressed antiwar groups in the North

      • peace Democrats—“copperheads”

      • military arrest of civilian dissenters

      • suspension of writ of habeas corpus

      • 13,000 arrested during the course of the war


    Emancipation
    EMANCIPATION

    2nd Confiscation Act (July 1862)

    • authorized the use of blacks in the Union army (186,000 ultimately serve)


    Emancipation1
    EMANCIPATION

    Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)

    • Had decided to issue it on Sept. 22, 1862

    • issued after the horrific battle at Antietam

    • an executive order under presidential war powers

    • free forever slaves in all areas of the Confederacy

    • did not apply to slave border states that had remained in the Union (Missouri, Kentucky)

    • greatly expanded antislavery sentiment in the North

      • by war’s end, slavery had been voluntarily abolished in other areas of the Union (MZ, MD, TN, LA, ARK)



    Emancipation2
    EMANCIPATION

    Sherman’s Special Field Order #15

    • set aside abandoned and confiscated land for free slaves (sea islands in Georgia and South Carolina)

    • later revoked by President Johnson (1866)

    • raised the question of distributing land to freed slaves

      13th Amendment (1865)

    • outlawed slavery in all of the United States forever


    Aftermath of the civil war
    AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR

    • northern economic boom

      • agriculture advancement increased Northern agricultural output

      • industrial growth spurred by supplying the Union army

      • continuation of the railroad boom

    • destruction of the Southern slave, cotton economy and social order

      • slavery abolished

      • Southern land and infrastructure lay in ruins

      • ¼ of white men dead, countless others maimed permanently

    • redistributed political and economic power and wealth to the North

    • emancipation of over 4 million slaves


    Aftermath of the civil war1
    AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR

    • massive, unprecedented loss of life:

      • Union— 364,511 dead; 281,881 wounded (646,392 total)

      • Confederate—260,000 dead; 194,000 wounded (454,00 total)

      • Totals—624,511 dead; 475,881 wounded (1,100,392 total)


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