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The Roots of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (1890s-1947) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Roots of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (1890s-1947). By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. The Middle East in 1914. Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915.

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The Roots of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (1890s-1947)

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The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The Roots

of the

Arab-Israeli Conflict

(1890s-1947)

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The Middle East in 1914


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915

....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca....

Hussein ibn Ali,Sharif of Mecca


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The Arab Revolt: 1916-1918


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The Allied Advance Against the Ottoman Turks

Br. GeneralEdmund Allenby


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917

His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of anational home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine…

Sir Arthur James BalfourBr. Foreign Secretary


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918

Arab Disappointment!


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The League of Nations Mandates


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

“New” Countries & Ruling Families Emerge!

  • Prince Faisal “ruler” of Trans-Jordan.

  • Prince Abdullah  “ruler” of a newly-created Iraq [pasted together from three distinctgeographic regions].

  • The House of Saud  put on the throne of thenewly-created Saudi Arabia.

  • The Pahlavi Family  put on the throne of a new Iran.

  • Mustafa Kemal  leads a military/nationalistmovement in Turkey.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Treaty of Lausanne, 1923

Modern Turkey Is Born.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk”(1881-1938)


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Ataturk’s Reform Program

  • Capital moved from Constantinople to Ankara.

  • Secularism  Qur’an in Turkish translation.

  • Adoption of a republican constitution and aSwiss civil code.

  • Westernization & nationalism:

    • Compulsory, secular education.

    • Banning the fez.

    • Western [Roman] script.

    • Western clothing.

    • Women unveiled & given full citizenship and the right to vote.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Oil Discovered in Mesopotamia!

  • First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persiain 1908.

  • Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 drill for oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia.

  • Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh of Kuwait who, while outwardly pledgingallegiance to the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul,promised exclusive oil rights to the British.

  • Kuwait became a British protectorate in November, 1914.

  • In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the Iraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Oil Becomes the New International“Coin of the Realm!”

  • American oil companies [Texaco & Chevron], gainoil concessions in Bahrainin 1929.

  • In 1933, American oil companies win an oilconcession in Saudi Arabia.

  • ARAMCO [Arab-American Oil Co,] is created in 1939.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Rezah Khan (1877-1944)

  • an Iranian officer, seizedcontrol of the govt. in 1921.

  • declared himself SHAH in1925.

  • created the Pahlavi Dynasty.

  • ruled from 1925-1941.

  • initiated some modern reforms.

  • forced to abdicate his throne by the Allied armies in 1941.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Reforms in Iran

  • Secularization  seizure of religious lands.

  • Adoption of the French civilcode.

  • Built the Trans-IranianRailroad.

  • Improved education.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The Middle East Between the Wars


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The

British in

Palestine

(1919-1947)


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Essential Question:

How did Britain’s actions in Palestine after 1918 lay the groundwork for the on-going conflict between the Jews and the Arabs in the Middle East today?


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Palestine Was Part of the Ottoman Empire


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Jews & Arabs in Palestine, 1920

  • In 1920, there was 1 Jew toevery 10 Arabs inPalestine.

  • By 1947, the ratio was 2 Arabs forevery Jew.

The Arabs felt that they were loosing control of their “country!”


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

British Mandate in PalestineCreatedJuly, 1922


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System

  • First one founded in 1908.

  • Communal living.

  • “Make the DesertBloom!”


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

1929 Arab Riots

IZBAH AL-YAHUD! [“Slaughter All the Jews!”]


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Palestine Arab Revolt: 1936-1939

Their Goals:

  • An end to Jewish immigration to Palestine.

  • An end to the transferof lands to Jewish owners.

  • A new “generalrepresentative government.”

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Hussani, with Adolf Hitler.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The Peel Commission Partition Plan, 1937


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

British White Paper of 1939

  • Limited Jewish immigration toPalestine to 75,000 over the next five years.

  • It ended Jewish landpurchases.

  • Independence forPalestine within 10 years.

  • It is NOT British policythat Palestine become aJewish state.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The “Arab Legion” of theBritish Army During WW2


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

The “Jewish Brigade” of theBritish Army During WW2


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Aliyah Bet : Illegal Jewish Immigration


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Aliyah Bet

  • Illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine.

  • The Exodus, 1947.


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Palestine Population in 1946


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

British “Detention” Campsin Cyprus : 1946-1948


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

Jewish “Freedom Fighters”(or “Terrorists”?)

Irgun Zvai Leumi[Natl. Military Org.]

Avraham Stern &The Stern Gang


The roots of the arab israeli conflict 1890s 1947

U. N. Partition Plan of 1947


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