Day 134: America in World War II. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute March 26, 2012 A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green. Announcements. Extra Credit is on the website. . America in World War II. Objectives:
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
March 26, 2012
A.P. U.S. History
Extra Credit is on the website.
Indicate how America reacted to Pearl Harbor and prepared to wage war against both Germany and Japan.
Describe the mobilization of the American economy for war and the mobilization of manpower and womanpower for both the military and wartime production.
Describe the war’s effects on American society, including regional migration, race relations, and women’s roles.
Explain the early Japanese successes in East Asia and the Pacific, and the American strategy for countering them.
Early in the war, Germany, Japan, and Italy have considerable military success. The Allies, except for France, which had surrendered in 1940, are fortunate not to be overwhelmed completely.
Fearing that they will be disloyal, President Roosevelt orders the detention of Japanese Americans, a serious violation of basic American civil rights.
Unified by Pearl Harbor, America effectively carried out a war mobilization effort that produced vast social and economic changes within American society.
Following its “get Hitler first” strategy, the United States and its Allies invaded and liberated conquered Europe from Fascist rule. The slower strategy of island-hopping against Japan also proceeded successfully until the atomic bomb brought a sudden end to World War II.
December 7, 1941
Battleship fleet virtually wiped out
3 carriers out that day
Italy/Germany declared war on U.S. on Dec. 11, 1941
ABC-1 agreement (Jan, 29, 1941 to March 27, 1941)
get Germany 1st
Assimilation of Immigrants occurred quickly
One exception-Executive order 9066
War Production Board
assigned priorities for transportation and access to raw materials
National speed limits/gasoline rationing
Office of Price Administration
National War Labor Board
ceilings on wage increases
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
strikes against government operated industry are illegal
15 million men
216,000 women-noncombat roles
SPARs (coast guard)
New workers needed to be found
6 million women worked outside the home
government day cares
Great majority of women stayed home
Seeds of the postwar blossoming of the sunbelt
Executive Order forbidding discrimination in defense industries
FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission)
NAACP membership rose
CORE started in 1942 Congress of Racial Equality
Disposable personal income doubled
Income tax expanded to catch 4 times more
max rates as high as 90%
49 billion to 259 billion-U.S. debt between 31 and 45
Japan successfully attacked:
Guam, Wake, and the Philippines
Hong Kong, British Malaya (rubber and tin)
Cut the Burma Road
used by U.S. to supply Chiang Kai-shek
Dutch East Indies-oil rich
MacArthur withdrew to Bataan with Filipino troops, a defensive position until April 9, 1942
MacArthur ordered to withdraw to Australia
Bataan death march-80 mile march (atrocities on both sides)
New Guinea, north of Australia
Battle of Coral Sea checked the Japanese in May 1942
June 3-6, 1942
1,000 miles northwest of Honolulu
Why is this a strategic position?
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz
Japan secured Kiska and Attu-Aleutian archipelago
August 1942-Guadalcanal Island-Solomon Islands
Japan gave up in February 1943 with 20,000 losses compared to 1700 for the U.S. (10:1)
Read Chapter 34
Prepare for 5 question reading check on Tuesday