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Chapter 5 Sec 1. India. Land. India and several other countries (Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives) make up the South Asian Subcontinent. A subcontinent- is a large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it.

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Chapter 5 Sec 1

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Chapter 5 sec 1

Chapter 5 Sec 1


Chapter 5 sec 1


  • India and several other countries (Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives) make up the South Asian Subcontinent.

  • A subcontinent- is a large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it.

Chapter 5 sec 1

  • India is bordered in the North by two mountain ranges. The Karakoram range and the Himalayas.

  • The Himalayas are the largest mountain in the world with an average peak height of 5 miles tall.

  • There are also mountain in the southern part of India.

Chapter 5 sec 1

  • Most of India is warm or hot all year long because the Himalayas keep cold northern air from reaching the country.

  • Monsoons- or seasonal winds that blow steadily from the same direction for months, also influence the climate.

  • May through October the monsoons bring rains from the Indian Ocean.

Green revolution

Green Revolution

  • India raises most of the foods it needs today.

  • During the Bengal Famine, in 1943, 4 million people died of starvation.

  • When India won its independence from Great Britain in 1947, Indian officials improved India’s farm land.

  • The Green Revolution- was an effort to use modern techniques and science to increase production of food.

Green revolution cont

Green Revolution Cont.

  • The government built dams to collect water and spread this water to the farms through irrigation.

  • This allowed the farmers to plant more than once a year and they could plant multiple crops.

  • Today’s India grows rice, wheat, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and jute- a plant fiber used to make rope, burlap bags and carpet backing.

Chapter 5 sec 1

  • Huge factories in India’s cities turn out cotton textiles and produce iron and steel.

  • They also have oil and sugar refineries.

  • Recently American computer companies have opened offices in India to make software.

  • India also has cottage industry- or a home or village-based industry in which family members, including children, supply their own equipment to make goods.



  • Like the U.S., India is a democracy.

  • It has two houses of parliament or congress.

  • The Council of States, like our senate, and the House of the People which is like our house of representatives.

  • The prime minister- an official who heads the government in a parliamentary democracy, is elected by the party with the most votes and does the job of a president.



  • India’s economic growth has brought challenges of pollution.

  • Some of the problems are Deforestation.

  • The pollution of water and land from burning coal, industrial waste, and pesticides- or chemicals used to kill insects that destroy crops.

  • The main river the Ganges is considered one of the most polluted in the world.

India s history

India’s History

  • About 4,000 years ago the 1st Indian civilization was along the Indus River Valley in present day Pakistan.

  • Later Aryans came and blended their beliefs into the local customs and the religion eventually became Hinduism.

  • Under Hinduism the people created castes. A caste- was a social class based on a persons ancestry.

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  • You were not allowed to do anything out of your caste.

  • Islam influenced India through the Mogul Empire. They ruled India for 200 years in the 1500s.

  • The British were the last of India’s conquerors, they ruled from 1700s-1900s.

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  • Mohandas Gandhi led a non violent resistance in the mid 1900s. Eventually India gained its freedom in 1947.

  • East and West Pakistan, one on each side of India, were created as Muslim homelands. East Pakistan became Bangladesh in 1971.



  • About 80% of India follow Hinduism.

  • They believe in Reincarnation- this is the belief that after the body dies the soul is reborn, often in human or animal form, until they reach perfection.

  • Many Hindu's believe it is wrong to kill any living creature for this reason.

  • Cows are believed to be sacred and are allowed to roam freely.

Religion cont

Religion cont.

  • Diwali is a major holiday in India. It is the festival of lights and celebrates the coming of winter and the victory of good over evil.

  • Sikhs is a religion that believes in one god like Christians but shares Hindu beliefs too. They want to create their own state apart from India.

Daily life

Daily Life

  • There are around 1.2 billion people in India today.

  • There are 18 official languages

  • Hindi is the most common but English is used in business and government.

  • About 70% of the population live in a rural environment.

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