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1. Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation Chapter 10
2. Objectives What is triadic reciprocal causality and what role does it play in social cognitive theory?
What is self-efficacy and how does it affect learning in school?
What are the sources of self-efficacy?
What is teachers? sense of efficacy?
How does self-regulated learning work?what are the phases?
How can teachers support the development of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning?
3. Overview of Chapter 10 I. Social Cognitive Theory
II. Applying Social Cognitive Theory
III. Self-Regulated Learning
IV. Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning
V. Diversity and Convergences in Theories of Learning
4. I. Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura
Triarchic reciprocal causality
Key concepts: Self-efficacy & self-regulated learning
5. Albert Bandura Had to become a self-regulated learner to overcome a lack of educational resources
On faculty at Stanford (since age 28)
Most of what we know about social cognitive theory is based on his work
6. Social Cognitive Theory: Beyond Behaviorism Behavioral views of learning provide inadequate explanation of learning language and culture
Social Cognitive Theory includes learning from modeling (the social) as well as thoughts, beliefs, expectations, judgments (the cognitive)
Can you think of some types of learning that are difficult to explain using behaviorist theory?
7. Triarchic Reciprocal Causality Dynamic interplay between personal, environmental, and behavioral influences
Personal factors: beliefs, expectations, attitudes, knowledge
Environmental factors: resources, other people, physical settings
Behavioral factors: actions, choices, verbal statements
8. Triarchic Reciprocal Causality: An Example from the Classroom Julia has to care for siblings because her mother has to work late (social influence) and can't study for test resulting in a poor grade (behavioral outcome). The teacher then lowers his expectations and, in turn, his behavior towards Julia (social influence). Julia begins to doubt her ability and lowers the goals she has for the class (personal factor) which then impacts the effort she puts forth toward studying for the next test (behavior).
What are some ways to reverse this cycle?
9. Self-Efficacy & Agency Self-efficacy: Beliefs about personal competence in a given area
Human agency: Ability to make intentional choices, design and execute plans and actions
What are the implications? How may teachers change their practices to support student agency?
10. Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, Self-Esteem Self-Efficacy
Strong predictor of behavior
?I can do this problem in math?
Description of self based on comparison to a reference (self or others)
Weaker predictor of behavior
?I am good at math?
Judgment of self worth
?I feel good about myself because I am good at math?
11. Sources of Self-Efficacy Mastery Experiences
Direct success increases efficacy; failure lowers it
Strongest source in adults
Physiological & Emotional Arousal
One?s interpretation of arousal is key
Anxious & worried or excited & ?psyched??
12. Sources of Self-Efficacy cont?d Vicarious Experiences
Watching someone successfully complete the task increases efficacy?especially if we think we are similar the model
Strong source of self-efficacy in children
Influenced by credibility & expertise of persuader
13. Modeling: Learning from Others Characteristics of successful models
Developmental status of observer: students need to be able to attend to the model and utilize the strategies they observe
Model prestige & competence: More attention paid to competent, high-status models
Vicarious consequences: Valued consequences are important??yes, my classmate was able to diagram that sentence, but do I care??
14. Modeling: Learning from Others Characteristics of successful models cont?d
Outcome expectancy: ?Did the model perform behavior that produced a favorable outcome??
Goal setting: ?Does the model?s behavior help me obtain my goals??
Self-efficacy: ?My classmate was able to do it, maybe I can too!?
15. II. Applying Social Cognitive Theory Fundamental questions:
How to best use observational learning?
How can teachers increase students? sense of efficacy?
What is teacher?s sense of efficacy, and what does it mean for me?
16. Observational Learning in Teaching: Guidelines Show enthusiasm for what you are teaching!
Demonstrate the task
Model good problem solving: Invite students into your thinking process
Explicitly point out consequences for good (and bad) behavior
Be fair in passing out rewards
17. Self-Efficacy in Learning and Teaching: Guidelines Teach students specific learning strategies
Reward students for achievement when it signals increased competence
Encourage the adoption of short-term goals that make it easier to see progress
highlight earlier work students have done to show development
encourage students to improve projects in when they have learned more
18. Self-Efficacy Guidelines cont?d? Model mastery:
Set goals that help students recognize improvement
Share examples of how you or others have developed abilities in a given area
Don?t excuse failure due to problems outside of school, but help students succeed in school
Make specific suggestions for improvement and adjust grades accordingly:
Write comments on work that note what was correct, incorrect, and why mistakes may have been made
Experiment with peer editing
Show how the higher grade reflects greater competence
19. Self-Efficacy Guidelines cont?d? Connect past efforts and accomplishments:
Ask students to reflect on how they solved difficult problems
Confront self-defeating, failure-avoiding strategies
How might the adoption of failure-avoiding strategies undermine a strong sense of self-efficacy?
20. Teacher?s Sense of Efficacy Teacher?s belief that s/he can help even difficult students learn
One of the few personal characteristics associated with student learning
Promoted by supportive administrators with high expectations for student success
Teacher?s sense of efficacy is generally high during student teaching, but lowers the first year of teaching
What can you do keep your self-efficacy intact during the first year of teaching?
21. III. Self-Regulated Learning ?Skills? and ?wills? involved in analyzing tasks, setting goals, planning, applying, and making adjustments for learning
Goal of teaching: that students would learn independently throughout their lives
22. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation I. Knowledge of
Self?preferred learning approaches, what is easy/hard, coping ability, interests, how to use strengths
Tasks for learning?different tasks require different approaches/strategies
23. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation cont?d II. Motivation
With self-regulated learners, learning is valued over ?looking good?
Self-regulated learners see purpose in the task
Protecting opportunities to reach goals
Should I study in my dorm room knowing my roommates will return shortly to ?coerce? me into going back out with them to have a good time?
24. Cognitive Behavior Modification Focus on self-talk to regulate behavior
Cognitive modeling: Adult performs task while ?thinking out loud?
Overt, external guidance: Child performs task under adult?s instructions
Overt, self-guidance: Child performs task by instructing her/himself aloud
Faded, overt self-guidance: Child whispers instructions to self
Overt self-instruction: Child performs task while guiding performance with inner speech
25. Supporting Self-Regulation Emphasize encouragement
Teach students to encourage one another
Inform parents of the areas where their children could use the most support
Target small steps for improving academic skill
Discuss with students how to set goals and monitor progress
26. Supporting Self-Regulation cont?d Make families a source of good strategy ideas
Give students strategies they can use at home
Create a lending library of books on goal setting and strategies
Encourage families to help children focus on problem-solving processes
Provide self-evaluative guidelines
Develop rubrics for self-evaluation for students
Provide record-keeping sheets
27. Emotional Self-Regulation Critical for academic and personal development
Essential emotional self-regulation skills:
Knowing self and others
Making responsible decisions
Caring for others
Knowing how to act
28. Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation Create a climate of trust
Avoid listening to ?tattle tale? stories
Avoid unnecessary comparisons
Follow through with fair consequences
Help students recognize & express feelings
Provide a vocabulary of emotions
Be descriptive about your own emotions
Encourage students to journal about their feelings
29. Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation cont?d Help students recognize feelings of others
Encourage perspective taking
Provide coping strategies
Discuss different ways to handle intense emotions
Model strategies?talk about how you handle intense emotions
Help students recognize cultural differences in emotional expression
Have students discuss how they show emotions in their family
Teach students to ask others how they are feeling
30. IV. Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning Assign complex tasks. The best are:
Achievable, yet challenging
Have multiple goals
Engage students and extend over long periods of time
Provide students w/ info on their progress
Share control with students
Choice results in increased motivation and responsibility for the task
Choice allows student to adjust level of challenge
Model good decision making for students
31. Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and SRL cont?d Assign tasks that are self-evaluative
Evaluation embedded within activities
Should emphasize process as well as products
Focus on personal progress
Often less anxiety than traditional assessment
Effective collaboration reflects climate of community
Collaboration encourages co-regulation
32. Convergences of Theories of Learning Four ?pillars of teaching?
Constructivist: students must make sense of the material
Cognitive: Students must remember what they have understood
Behavioral: Students must practice and apply learning
Social Cognitive: Students must take charge of their own learning