Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation

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Objectives. What is triadic reciprocal causality and what role does it play in social cognitive theory?What is self-efficacy and how does it affect learning in school?What are the sources of self-efficacy?What is teachers' sense of efficacy?How does self-regulated learning workwhat are the phas

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Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation

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1. Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation Chapter 10

2. Objectives What is triadic reciprocal causality and what role does it play in social cognitive theory? What is self-efficacy and how does it affect learning in school? What are the sources of self-efficacy? What is teachers’ sense of efficacy? How does self-regulated learning work—what are the phases? How can teachers support the development of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning?

3. Overview of Chapter 10 I. Social Cognitive Theory II. Applying Social Cognitive Theory III. Self-Regulated Learning IV. Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning V. Diversity and Convergences in Theories of Learning

4. I. Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura “beyond” behaviorism Triarchic reciprocal causality Key concepts: Self-efficacy & self-regulated learning

5. Albert Bandura Had to become a self-regulated learner to overcome a lack of educational resources On faculty at Stanford (since age 28) Most of what we know about social cognitive theory is based on his work

6. Social Cognitive Theory: Beyond Behaviorism Behavioral views of learning provide inadequate explanation of learning language and culture Social Cognitive Theory includes learning from modeling (the social) as well as thoughts, beliefs, expectations, judgments (the cognitive) Can you think of some types of learning that are difficult to explain using behaviorist theory?

7. Triarchic Reciprocal Causality Dynamic interplay between personal, environmental, and behavioral influences Personal factors: beliefs, expectations, attitudes, knowledge Environmental factors: resources, other people, physical settings Behavioral factors: actions, choices, verbal statements

8. Triarchic Reciprocal Causality: An Example from the Classroom Julia has to care for siblings because her mother has to work late (social influence) and can't study for test resulting in a poor grade (behavioral outcome). The teacher then lowers his expectations and, in turn, his behavior towards Julia (social influence). Julia begins to doubt her ability and lowers the goals she has for the class (personal factor) which then impacts the effort she puts forth toward studying for the next test (behavior). What are some ways to reverse this cycle?

9. Self-Efficacy & Agency Self-efficacy: Beliefs about personal competence in a given area Human agency: Ability to make intentional choices, design and execute plans and actions What are the implications? How may teachers change their practices to support student agency?

10. Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, Self-Esteem Self-Efficacy Context specific Strong predictor of behavior “I can do this problem in math” Self-Concept Description of self based on comparison to a reference (self or others) Weaker predictor of behavior “I am good at math” Self-Esteem Judgment of self worth “I feel good about myself because I am good at math”

11. Sources of Self-Efficacy Mastery Experiences Direct success increases efficacy; failure lowers it Strongest source in adults Physiological & Emotional Arousal One’s interpretation of arousal is key Anxious & worried or excited & “psyched”?

12. Sources of Self-Efficacy cont’d Vicarious Experiences Watching someone successfully complete the task increases efficacy—especially if we think we are similar the model Strong source of self-efficacy in children Social Persuasion “pep talk” Influenced by credibility & expertise of persuader

13. Modeling: Learning from Others Characteristics of successful models Developmental status of observer: students need to be able to attend to the model and utilize the strategies they observe Model prestige & competence: More attention paid to competent, high-status models Vicarious consequences: Valued consequences are important—”yes, my classmate was able to diagram that sentence, but do I care?”

14. Modeling: Learning from Others Characteristics of successful models cont’d Outcome expectancy: “Did the model perform behavior that produced a favorable outcome?” Goal setting: “Does the model’s behavior help me obtain my goals?” Self-efficacy: ”My classmate was able to do it, maybe I can too!”

15. II. Applying Social Cognitive Theory Fundamental questions: How to best use observational learning? How can teachers increase students’ sense of efficacy? What is teacher’s sense of efficacy, and what does it mean for me?

16. Observational Learning in Teaching: Guidelines Show enthusiasm for what you are teaching! Demonstrate the task Model good problem solving: Invite students into your thinking process Explicitly point out consequences for good (and bad) behavior Be fair in passing out rewards

17. Self-Efficacy in Learning and Teaching: Guidelines Teach students specific learning strategies Reward students for achievement when it signals increased competence Emphasize progress: Encourage the adoption of short-term goals that make it easier to see progress highlight earlier work students have done to show development encourage students to improve projects in when they have learned more

18. Self-Efficacy Guidelines cont’d… Model mastery: Set goals that help students recognize improvement Share examples of how you or others have developed abilities in a given area Don’t excuse failure due to problems outside of school, but help students succeed in school Make specific suggestions for improvement and adjust grades accordingly: Write comments on work that note what was correct, incorrect, and why mistakes may have been made Experiment with peer editing Show how the higher grade reflects greater competence

19. Self-Efficacy Guidelines cont’d… Connect past efforts and accomplishments: Ask students to reflect on how they solved difficult problems Confront self-defeating, failure-avoiding strategies How might the adoption of failure-avoiding strategies undermine a strong sense of self-efficacy?

20. Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Teacher’s belief that s/he can help even difficult students learn One of the few personal characteristics associated with student learning Promoted by supportive administrators with high expectations for student success Teacher’s sense of efficacy is generally high during student teaching, but lowers the first year of teaching What can you do keep your self-efficacy intact during the first year of teaching?

21. III. Self-Regulated Learning ‘Skills’ and ‘wills’ involved in analyzing tasks, setting goals, planning, applying, and making adjustments for learning Goal of teaching: that students would learn independently throughout their lives

22. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation I. Knowledge of Self—preferred learning approaches, what is easy/hard, coping ability, interests, how to use strengths Subject Tasks for learning—different tasks require different approaches/strategies Learning contexts

23. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation cont’d II. Motivation With self-regulated learners, learning is valued over ‘looking good’ Self-regulated learners see purpose in the task III. Volition Protecting opportunities to reach goals Should I study in my dorm room knowing my roommates will return shortly to “coerce” me into going back out with them to have a good time?

24. Cognitive Behavior Modification Focus on self-talk to regulate behavior Five steps: Cognitive modeling: Adult performs task while ‘thinking out loud’ Overt, external guidance: Child performs task under adult’s instructions Overt, self-guidance: Child performs task by instructing her/himself aloud Faded, overt self-guidance: Child whispers instructions to self Overt self-instruction: Child performs task while guiding performance with inner speech

25. Supporting Self-Regulation Emphasize encouragement Teach students to encourage one another Inform parents of the areas where their children could use the most support Model self-regulation Target small steps for improving academic skill Discuss with students how to set goals and monitor progress

26. Supporting Self-Regulation cont’d Make families a source of good strategy ideas Give students strategies they can use at home Create a lending library of books on goal setting and strategies Encourage families to help children focus on problem-solving processes Provide self-evaluative guidelines Develop rubrics for self-evaluation for students Provide record-keeping sheets

27. Emotional Self-Regulation Critical for academic and personal development Essential emotional self-regulation skills: Knowing self and others Making responsible decisions Caring for others Knowing how to act

28. Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation Create a climate of trust Avoid listening to ‘tattle tale’ stories Avoid unnecessary comparisons Follow through with fair consequences Help students recognize & express feelings Provide a vocabulary of emotions Be descriptive about your own emotions Encourage students to journal about their feelings

29. Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation cont’d Help students recognize feelings of others Encourage perspective taking Provide coping strategies Discuss different ways to handle intense emotions Model strategies—talk about how you handle intense emotions Help students recognize cultural differences in emotional expression Have students discuss how they show emotions in their family Teach students to ask others how they are feeling

30. IV. Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning Assign complex tasks. The best are: Achievable, yet challenging Have multiple goals Engage students and extend over long periods of time Provide students w/ info on their progress Share control with students Choice results in increased motivation and responsibility for the task Choice allows student to adjust level of challenge Model good decision making for students

31. Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and SRL cont’d Assign tasks that are self-evaluative Evaluation embedded within activities Should emphasize process as well as products Focus on personal progress Often less anxiety than traditional assessment Encourage collaboration Effective collaboration reflects climate of community Collaboration encourages co-regulation

32. Convergences of Theories of Learning Four “pillars of teaching” Constructivist: students must make sense of the material Cognitive: Students must remember what they have understood Behavioral: Students must practice and apply learning Social Cognitive: Students must take charge of their own learning

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