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Objectives. Explain the rise of Napoleon after Robespierre. Evaluate the importance of Napoleon’s reforms. Napoleon Forges an Empire. Chapter 23 Section 3. Napoleon’s Rise to Power. Very short, but casts a long shadow Became a great military genius In four years, from 1795-1799

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  • Explain the rise of Napoleon after Robespierre.

  • Evaluate the importance of Napoleon’s reforms.

Napoleon forges an empire

Napoleon Forges an Empire

Chapter 23 Section 3

Napoleon s rise to power

Napoleon’s Rise to Power

  • Very short, but casts a long shadow

    • Became a great military genius

  • In four years, from 1795-1799

    • From officer in the army

    • Became a great military genius

    • To Emperor of France

Napoleon seizes power

Napoleon Seizes Power

  • Hero: October 1795

    • Saved the National Convention

      • Royalist rebels attacked the Convention.

    • 1796 – led army against Austria

      • Many victories

      • Becomes most famous general in all of France.

Napoleon seizes power1

Napoleon Seizes Power

  • Coup d'état: 1799

    • Directory lost control and dissolved

    • Group of 3 consuls created

      • Napoleon – 1st consul

  • Plebiscite

    • Vote of the people

    • Approve new constitution

    • Gave real power to Napoleon

Napoleon restores order

Economic –

Balanced the budget

Better tax collection system

restored bread prices

Government –

Dismissed corrupt officials

Replaced with trained officials

Based on merit

Religious -

Recognized and supported the church

Church out of Government affairs

Napoleon Restores Order

Napoleon restores order napoleonic code

Napoleon Restores Order: Napoleonic Code

  • Legal-

    • Napoleonic Code

      • One Code of laws for France

        • everyone was equal in the eyes of the law

      • Purpose was to reform legal code to reflect the French Revolution

      • Actually limited liberty

        • Order over rights

The influence of the napoleonic code

The Influence of the Napoleonic Code

Wherever it was implemented [in the conquered territories], the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.

Becoming emperor

Becoming Emperor

  • Made himself “Consul for Life”

  • Made himself Emperor at the Cathedral of Norte Dame

Napoleon creates an empire the americas

Napoleon creates an Empire: The Americas

  • Haiti

    • They demanded the same privileges of Fr

    • Napoleon wanted to take back the colony

      • Restore the industry there

      • Expedition failed

  • Napoleon cut his losses

    • Offered to sell the Louisiana Territory

      • Gain $$$

      • Punish the British


Haitian Independence, 1792-1804

Toussaint L’Ouverture

Louisiana purchase 1803 doubled the size of the united states

Louisiana Purchase, 1803doubled the size of the United States

$15,000,000/828,800 square miles/ all or part of 14 U.S. states & 2 Canadian provinces.

Napoleon creates an empire europe

Napoleon creates an Empire:Europe

  • Already controlled Netherlands, parts of It. & Switz.

  • France vs. Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia

    • France wins, and wins BIG

    • Signed treaties with Austria, Russia, & Prussia

    • Only one left: Britain

  • Largest Empire since Rome



  • Explain the fall of Napoleon.

  • Evaluate the 3 mistakes Napoleon made, for his demise.

Napoleon s empire collapses

Napoleon’s Empire Collapses

Chapter 23 Section 4

Napoleon s loss

Napoleon’s Loss

  • Battle of Trafalgar

    • Naval defeat

    • British commander split the French fleet

  • Two major results

    • British navy: best for 100 years

    • Napoleon gave up on invading UK

    • Looked for another way to get UK

      • Tries blockade of UK

  • This would lead to his downfall



The french empire

The French Empire

  • Huge but unstable

  • Maintained it for only 5 years

  • Quickly fell to pieces

    • Caused by Napoleon’s actions

      • The Continental System

      • Peninsular War

      • Invasion of Russia

Napoleon s three mistakes

Napoleon’s Three Mistakes

The continental system

The Continental System

  • GOAL Isolate Britain and promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe.

  • Milan Decree (1807)

    • Ships from Britain would be seized (taken).

      • Blockade against Britain backfires

        • Prevent trade between Britain & European countries

      • Supposed to make Europe more self-sufficient & destroy Britain’s industry

        • Weakened France instead


Peninsular Campaign: 1807-1810



France 

 Spain & Portugal

  • Portugal did not comply with the Continental System.

  • France wanted Spain’s support to invade Portugal.

  • Spain refused = Napoleon invades Spain

    • Guerilla warfare in Spain = loss of many of Napoleon’s best troops.

      • Citizens ambushed Napoleon’s army

The big blunder russia

The “Big Blunder” -- Russia

  • July, Napoleon led his army of 614,000 men across central Europe into Russia.

    • The Russians avoided a direct confrontation.

    • Retreated to Moscow, drawing the French into the interior of Russia

      • Hoped that it’s size and the weather would act as “support” for the Russian cause.

      • “Scorched-Earth policy”

        • Burned fields, slaughtered livestock

        • Russian nobles abandoned their estates leaving the French to operate far from their supply bases.

Napoleon at moscow

Napoleon at Moscow

Moscow On Fire!

  • September, 1812  Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had been abandoned.

  • The Russians had set fire to the city.

Napoleon s defeat

Coalition took advantage of weakness

Defeated Napoleon

Battle of Leipzig

Napoleon surrendered

Exiled on Elba

He escaped

Napoleon’s Defeat


  • Louis XVIII is king

    • Not a smooth transition:

      • economic depression, fear, émigrés looked for revenge

      • Unpopular

    • 1815, Napoleon back 2 France = Louis flees.

    • The Hundred Days


  • Battle of Waterloo - loses

    • British and Prussian armies crush the French

    • Napoleon is again forced to exile - St. Helena

    • Died in 1821

  • After Napoleon

    • France brings BACK King Louis XVIII & Limited Monarchy

  • Napoleon en-route to Final Exile -St. Helena

    Accomplishments of napoleon

    Accomplishments of Napoleon

    • Napoleonic Code

    • Central State with Constitution

    • Elections with expanded suffrage

    • Increased access to property

    • Access to education

    • Created feelings of nationalism

    • Abolition of HRE lead to the creation of Germany

    The congress of vienna

    The Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna

    • Series of meetings in Vienna

    • Very Conservative

      • Wanted things to stay the same

    • Participants:

      • Austria, Russia, Britain, France

  • Main Goal:

    • create lasting peace and stability in Europe

  • Congress of vienna

    Congress of Vienna

    • Prevent Future aggression (Balance of Power)

      • Made small countries stronger

      • Prevents France from trying to take them over

    • Balance of Power:

      • Weakened France: surrounded France with strong countries

      • Not powerless

    • Restoring Monarchs:

      • wanted monarchies back

      • Louis XVIII back in power in France

      • Thought this would prevent turmoil

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