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Unit 9 Chordates. Ch. 30 Nonvertebrate Chordates, Fishes, & Amphibians. What Is a Chordate?. A chordate is an animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; & a tail that extends beyond the anus. What Is a Chordate?.

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unit 9 chordates

Unit 9 Chordates

Ch. 30 Nonvertebrate Chordates, Fishes, & Amphibians

what is a chordate
What Is a Chordate?
  • A chordate is an animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; & a tail that extends beyond the anus
what is a chordate1
What Is a Chordate?
  • Notochord - a long supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve cord
  • Pharyngeal pouches - paired structures in the throat region, used to help in gas exchange
most chordates are vertebrates
Most Chordates Are Vertebrates
  • Vertebrae - individual segments that make up the backbone
nonvertebrate chordates
Nonvertebrate Chordates
  • The 2 groups of nonvertebrate chordates are tunicates & lancelets
  • Both are soft-bodied marine organisms
  • Tunicates are often called sea squirts because of the stream of water they eject
nonvertebrate chordates1
Nonvertebrate Chordates
  • Lancelets are small nonvertebrate chordates that often live with their bodies 1/2 buried in sand
what is a fish
What Is a Fish?
  • Fishes are aquatic vertebrates; most fishes have paired fins, scales, & gills
evolution of fishes
Evolution of Fishes
  • The evolution of jaws & the evolution of paired fins were important developments during the rise of fishes
form function in fishes
Form & Function in Fishes
  • Adaptations to aquatic life include various modes of feeding, specialized structures for gas exchange, & paired fins for locomotion
groups of fishes
Groups of Fishes
  • When you consider their basic internal structure, all living fishes can be classified into 3 groups: jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, & bony fishes
ecology of fishes
Ecology of Fishes
  • Fishes are important source of food for many organisms
what is an amphibian
What Is an Amphibian?
  • An amphibian is a vertebrate that, typically, lives in water as a larva & on land as an adult, breathes with lungs as an adult, has moist skin that contains mucous glands, & lacks scales & claws
evolution of amphibians
Evolution of Amphibians
  • Early amphibians evolved several adaptations that helped them live at least part of their lives out of water
  • Bones in the limbs of amphibians became stronger, permitting more efficient movement
evolution of amphibians1
Evolution of Amphibians
  • Lungs & breathing tubes enabled them to breathe air
  • The sternum, or breastbone, formed a bony shield to support & protect internal organs, especially the lungs
form function in amphibians
Form & Function in Amphibians
  • Tadpoles are filter feeders, adult amphibians are almost entirely carnivorous
form function in amphibians1
Form & Function in Amphibians
  • An amphibian’s heart has 3 chambers, 2 atria & 1 ventricle
  • Some wastes diffuse across the skin, but kidneys remove most wastes from bloodstream
form function in amphibians2
Form & Function in Amphibians
  • An amphibian typically begins its life in water, then moves on land as an adult
groups of amphibians
Groups of Amphibians
  • The 3 groups of amphibians alive today are salamanders, frogs & toads, & caecilians
ecology of amphibians
Ecology of Amphibians
  • Some amphibians that release toxins have brightly colored bodies
  • The colors & patterns serve as a warning to potential predators