A view of a cell
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A View of a Cell. The Life Inside. The Cell Theory. Robert Hooke Studies of cork cells Nearly 200 years later… Three Main Ideas of the Cell Theory All organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms All cells come from preexisting cells.

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A View of a Cell

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A View of a Cell

The Life Inside


The Cell Theory

  • Robert Hooke

    • Studies of cork cells

  • Nearly 200 years later…

    • Three Main Ideas of the Cell Theory

      • All organisms are composed of one or more cells

      • The cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms

      • All cells come from preexisting cells


Cell Types

  • Prokaryotes

    • Mainly bacteria

    • No nucleus-single strand DNA within the cell

    • No membrane bound organelles

    • Contain cell wall

  • Eukaryotes

    • Plant and animal cells

    • Can be unicellular organisms such as algae and yeast

    • Clearly defined nucleus and organelles


Structure and Function

What does all that stuff do?


Cell (Plasma) Membrane

  • Definition

    • Separates the cell and its contents from the surrounding environment

  • Function

    • “Gatekeeper”-controls what enters and leaves the cell


Cell (Plasma) Membrane

  • Structure

    • Two phospholipid layers (bilayer)

    • Phosphate head-hydrophilic

    • Lipid tail-hydrophobic

    • Protein molecules-1/2 or all of way through membrane

    • Carbohydrate chains


Cell Wall

  • Definition

    • Cell structure found in plants

    • Located outside of the plasma membrane

  • Function

    • Rigid barrier that gives the cell support and protection

  • Structure

    • Carbohydrate-cellulose


Nucleus

  • Definition

    • “Brain” of the cell/control center

  • Function

    • Contains chromosomes

    • Nucleolus-makes ribosomes

  • Structure

    • Surrounded by nuclear envelope


Cytoplasm

  • Definition

    • Everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus

  • Structure

    • Cytosol-jellylike material, mostly water

    • Organelles-“mini-organs” of the cell


Ribosomes

  • Function

    • Manufactures enzymes and other proteins

  • Structure

    • Organelle found in the nucleus, free in cytoplasm, or in the lining of the endoplasmic reticulum


Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

  • Function

    • Transports and processes materials through the cell

  • Structure

    • Network of membranes that connects nuclear membrane to cell membrane

    • “accordion folded”

    • smooth and rough ER


Golgi Apparatus

  • Function

    • Responsible for packaging and secreting of cell products

    • Further modifies proteins

  • Structure

    • Flattened tubes


Vacuoles (animal cells)

  • Function

    • Temporary storage of materials, such as food, enzymes and other materials needed by the cell

  • Structure

    • Many small vacuoles in animal cells


Lysosomes

  • Function

    • Garbage collector”

    • Digest excess or worn out organelles, engulfed viruses and bacteria

  • Structure

    • Small sacs inside cytoplasm, can fuse with vacuoles and release enzymes


Mitochondria

  • Function

    • “Powerhouse of the cell”

    • Cellular respiration takes place here to create energy for the cell

  • Structure

    • Outer membrane and highly folded inner membrane to allow for a large surface area in a small space


Plastids-Chloroplasts

  • Function

    • Captures sunlight and coverts it into food using CO2 and H2O (photosynthesis)

  • Structure

    • Appear green because they contain chlorophyll, a pigment that absorbs the energy in sunlight


Plastids-Vacuoles (plant)

  • Function

    • Stores water, proteins, sugar, etc

    • Some store pigments which give plants their color

  • Structure

    • Large membrane bound sac


Cilia and Flagella

  • Function

    • Allow cell to move-important in unicellular organisms

  • Structure

    • Cilia-many short hair-like projections that move in a wave motion

    • Flagella-longer projections that use a whip-like motion


Cytoskeleton

  • Function

    • A constantly changing structure that provides a framework and support for the cell

  • Structure

    • Composed of tiny rods and filaments, within the cytoplasm


All pictures fromhttp://www.biology4kids.com


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