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1. Organic Molecules- The Building Blocks of Life
2. I. What is an Organic Compound? Contains carbon atoms
Built from carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N)- Covalently Bonded
3. Where is Carbon on the Periodic Table?
4. Carbon has 4 electrons in its outmost electron shell. it forms 4 covalent bonds
5. Carbon bonds: Chains, Branched, RingsEach line represents a single covalent bond
6. Carbon also forms double & triple bonds
7. Methane - the simplest carbon compound- 1 Carbon & 4 hydrogen atoms
8. Other simple organic molecules
9. B. Functional groups
11. Example -adding a hydroxyl group makes ethane into an alcohol-
Example - adding an amino group
- makes methane or ethane into- an amine
12. C. Sizes of Molecules 1. Monomers- small simple molecules
2. Polymers- big molecules formed when monomers bonded to each other
13. 3. Reactions to build or break down molecules Condensation Reaction
2 monomers join together- a water is released
(an H from 1 end and an OH from the other
end are cut loose when the monomers join.)
polymers are broken back down- they need a water added.
14. Hydrolysis of sucrose
15. D. Energy from ATP Life needs a constant supply of energy
Chemical bonds store energy.
One molecule that living things use to store energy is in the bonds of the ATP molecule
16. Adenosine Triphosphate
17. ATP-ADP Cycle.
18. 4 Classes of Organic Molecules Carbohydrates
19. Monomers & Polymers
Each group has small molecules (monomers)
linked to form larger macromolecules
(polymers) three to millions of subunits.
the most important energy source for cells
short-term energy storage (sugar)
intermediate-term energy storage
starch for plants
glycogen for animals
as structural components in cells
cellulose cell walls of plants
chitin -exoskeleton of insects
22. Carbohydrates General formula [CH2O]n
where n is a number between 3 and 6.
Ex- glucose= C6H12O6
24. Got Milk?- milks sugar is lactose Infant mammals are fed on milk from mom
Enzyme lactase digests
the molecule into its two
subunits for absorption.
in most species, including humans,
the production of lactase gradually
ceases with maturity, & they are
then unable to metabolize lactose
becoming Lactose intolerant
25. A Polysaccharide
26. B. Proteins Important as control and structural elements.
Control enzymes, hormones.
Structural -cell membrane, muscle tissue, etc.
Amino acids are the
building block of proteins
All living things (and even viruses) use various combinations of the same 20 amino acids.
27. An Amino Acid
29. *Amino acids are linked together by joining the amino end of one molecule to the carboxyl end of another. *Removal of water (condensation reaction) links amino acids with a peptide bond.
30. 2. PEPTIDE BONDS
31. Some examples of proteins Antibodies: they recognize molecules of invading organisms.
Receptors: part of the cell membrane, they recognize other proteins, or chemicals, and inform the cell... 'The Door Bell'.
Enzymes: assemble or digest.
Neurotransmitters and some hormones: Trigger the receptors... (the finger on the door bell...)
Channels, and pores: holes in the cell membrane (with or without a gate). Usually, filter the flow...
32. 3. Enzymes Organic molecules that act as catalysts
Enzymes & substrates (the reactants) fit together like a lock & key
This fit weaken bonds so that less energy is needed for reaction.
34. C. Lipids Functions:
Long-term energy storage.
-Generally insoluble in polar substances (water)
phospholipids are the major building block in cell membranes
hormones ("messengers") play roles in communications within and between cells.
35. Structure of Fatty Acids The carboxyl head is polar- therefore it is HYDROPHILIC water loving
The hydrocarbon CH2 units are HYDROPHOBIC- water fearing
(not water soluble).
36. Fatty acids Can be saturated (meaning they have as many hydrogens bonded to their carbons as possible)
Unsaturated (with one or more double bonds connecting their carbons, hence fewer hydrogens).
A fat is solid at room temperature, while an oil is a liquid under the same conditions. The fatty acids in oils are mostly unsaturated, while those in fats are mostly saturated.
37. 2. Triglycerides Triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids (usually) covalently bonded to a 3-carbon glycerol.
40. Fats and oils function in energy storage. Animals convert excess sugars into fats.
Most plants store excess sugars as starch, although some seeds and fruits have energy stored as oils (e.g. corn oil, peanut oil, palm oil, canola oil, and sunflower oil).
Fats yield 9.3 Kcal/gm, while carbohydrates yield 3.79 Kcal/gm. Fats store six times as much energy as glycogen.
41. Diets & Fat Intake Attempts to reduce the amount of fats present in specialized cells known as adipose cells that accumulate in certain areas of the human body.
By restricting the intakes of carbohydrates and fats, the body is forced to draw on its own stores to makeup the energy debt.
The body responds to this by lowering its metabolic rate, often resulting in a drop of "energy level."
Successful diets usually involve three things: decreasing the amounts of carbohydrates and fats; exercise; and behavior modification
42. 3. Phospholipids
One fatty acid is
replaced with a
The negative charge(s) of the phosphate makes the head of the phospholipid hydrophilic. The long, hydrocarbon tail is non-polar and, therefore, hydrophobic.
44. 4. Cholesterol and steroids: Structure is a lipid with 4 carbon rings with various functional groups attached
Cholesterol has many biological uses, such as its occurrence in the cell membranes, and its role in forming the sheath of some neurons. Excess cholesterol in the blood has been linked to atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries.
Steroids are mainly used as hormones in living things
45. D. Nucleic Acids
47. Structure of DNA Structure of tRNA -double strand of nucleotides -single strand of nucleotides
49. RNA differs from DNA in the following ways: RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded.
RNA has a sugar called ribose while DNA has a sugar called deoxyribose.
RNA has the base uracil while DNA has the base thymine.
50. How DNA & RNA work together DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material.
It functions by storing information regarding the sequence of amino acids in each of the bodys proteins.
This "list" of amino acid sequences is needed when proteins are synthesized.
Before protein can be synthesized, the instructions in DNA must first be copied to another type of nucleic acid called messenger RNA.
51. 3 types RNA Messenger RNA, or mRNA.
carries the code for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. It acts as a messenger.
Transfer RNA or tRNA.
picks up specific amino acids in the cytoplasm & brings them into position on ribosome where they are joined together in specific order to make a specific protein.
Ribosomal RNA or rRNA place for protein synthesis
52. How a protein is built