Chapter 3 Biochemistry. Organic Molecules - The Building Blocks of Life. I. What is an Organic Compound ?. Contains carbon atoms Built from carbon ( C ), hydrogen ( H ) and nitrogen ( N )- Covalently Bonded. Where is Carbon on the Periodic Table?. It forms 4 covalent bonds.
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It forms4 covalent bonds
A good site for more explanation:
- A specific group of atoms that gives a known type of behavior to molecules
– changes the characteristics of the compound-
(See page 52 in your textbook for more on functional groups)
Hydrocarbons - C and H only
Alcohols - OH
Acids - COOH
Amines - NH2
Example - adding an amino group
- makes methane or ethane into- an amine
1. Monomers-small simple molecules
2. Polymers-big molecules formed when monomers bonded to each other
(an H from 1 end and an OH from the other
end are cut loose when the monomers join.)
Blue = ribose (a 5-carbon sugar)Green = adenine (a nitrogenous base)
Yellow = phosphate groups
Energy is stored in bonds joining thephosphate groups
Energy is stored in ATP (ADP + P)
Energy is used as needed & ATP is
converted back to ADP + phosphate.
(polymers) three to millions of subunits.
the most important energy source for cells
- single sugar unitsglucose
- twomonosaccharides. Lactose, maltose
- linking many sugar units together
Examples: starch, glycogen, cellulose
the molecule into its two
subunits for absorption.
the production of lactase gradually
ceases with maturity, & they are
then unable to metabolize lactose…
becoming “Lactose intolerant”
Lots of monomers linked together
building block of proteins
*Amino acids are linked together by joining the amino end of one molecule to the carboxyl end of another. *Removal of water (condensation reaction) links amino acids with a peptide bond.
-Generally insoluble in polar substances (water)
(not water soluble).
replaced with a
*The water loving edge of the molecule orients toward water- the inside and outside of the cell.
*The water fearing edges of the molecule orient toward each other to make a lipid “bilayer”
- the construction of the cell membrane.