Organic Molecules - The Building Blocks of Life

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Organic Molecules - The Building Blocks of Life

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1. Organic Molecules - The Building Blocks of Life

2. I. What is an Organic Compound? Contains carbon atoms Built from carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N)- Covalently Bonded

3. Where is Carbon on the Periodic Table?

4. Carbon has 4 electrons in its outmost electron shell. it forms 4 covalent bonds

5. Carbon bonds: Chains, Branched, Rings Each line represents a single covalent bond

6. Carbon also forms double & triple bonds

7. Methane - the simplest carbon compound- 1 Carbon & 4 hydrogen atoms

8. Other simple organic molecules Butane cyclohexane

9. B. Functional groups

11. Example -adding a hydroxyl group ? makes ethane into an alcohol- Example - adding an amino group - makes methane or ethane into- an amine

12. C. Sizes of Molecules 1. Monomers- small simple molecules 2. Polymers- big molecules formed when monomers bonded to each other

13. 3. Reactions to build or break down molecules Condensation Reaction 2 monomers join together- a water is released (an H from 1 end and an OH from the other end are cut loose when the monomers join.) Hydrolysis Reaction polymers are broken back down- they need a water added.

14. Hydrolysis of sucrose

15. D. Energy from ATP Life needs a constant supply of energy Chemical bonds store energy. One molecule that living things use to store energy is in the bonds of the ATP molecule Adenosine Triphosphate

16. Adenosine Triphosphate

17. ATP-ADP Cycle.

18. 4 Classes of Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids

19. Monomers & Polymers Each group has small molecules (monomers) linked to form larger macromolecules (polymers) three to millions of subunits.

20. Carbohydrates the most important energy source for cells short-term energy storage (sugar) intermediate-term energy storage starch for plants glycogen for animals as structural components in cells cellulose cell walls of plants chitin -exoskeleton of insects

21.

22. Carbohydrates General formula [CH2O]n where n is a number between 3 and 6. Ex- glucose= C6H12O6

24. Got Milk? - milk?s sugar is lactose Infant mammals are fed on milk from mom Enzyme lactase digests the molecule into its two subunits for absorption. in most species, including humans, the production of lactase gradually ceases with maturity, & they are then unable to metabolize lactose? becoming ?Lactose intolerant?

25. A Polysaccharide

26. B. Proteins Important as control and structural elements. Control ?enzymes, hormones. Structural -cell membrane, muscle tissue, etc. Amino acids are the building block of proteins All living things (and even viruses) use various combinations of the same 20 amino acids.

27. An Amino Acid

29. *Amino acids are linked together by joining the amino end of one molecule to the carboxyl end of another. *Removal of water (condensation reaction) links amino acids with a peptide bond.

30. 2. PEPTIDE BONDS

31. Some examples of proteins Antibodies: they recognize molecules of invading organisms. Receptors: part of the cell membrane, they recognize other proteins, or chemicals, and inform the cell... 'The Door Bell'. Enzymes: assemble or digest. Neurotransmitters and some hormones: Trigger the receptors... (the finger on the door bell...) Channels, and pores: holes in the cell membrane (with or without a gate). Usually, filter the flow...

32. 3. Enzymes Organic molecules that act as catalysts Enzymes & substrates (the reactants) fit together like a ?lock & key? This fit weaken bonds so that less energy is needed for reaction.

34. C. Lipids Functions: Long-term energy storage. -Generally insoluble in polar substances (water) phospholipids are the major building block in cell membranes hormones ("messengers") play roles in communications within and between cells.

35. Structure of Fatty Acids The carboxyl head is polar- therefore it is HYDROPHILIC ? water loving The hydrocarbon CH2 units are HYDROPHOBIC- water fearing (not water soluble).

36. Fatty acids Can be saturated (meaning they have as many hydrogens bonded to their carbons as possible) Unsaturated (with one or more double bonds connecting their carbons, hence fewer hydrogens). A fat is solid at room temperature, while an oil is a liquid under the same conditions. The fatty acids in oils are mostly unsaturated, while those in fats are mostly saturated.

37. 2. Triglycerides Triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids (usually) covalently bonded to a 3-carbon glycerol.

40. Fats and oils function in energy storage. Animals convert excess sugars into fats. Most plants store excess sugars as starch, although some seeds and fruits have energy stored as oils (e.g. corn oil, peanut oil, palm oil, canola oil, and sunflower oil). Fats yield 9.3 Kcal/gm, while carbohydrates yield 3.79 Kcal/gm. Fats store six times as much energy as glycogen.

41. Diets & Fat Intake Attempts to reduce the amount of fats present in specialized cells known as adipose cells that accumulate in certain areas of the human body. By restricting the intakes of carbohydrates and fats, the body is forced to draw on its own stores to makeup the energy debt. The body responds to this by lowering its metabolic rate, often resulting in a drop of "energy level." Successful diets usually involve three things: decreasing the amounts of carbohydrates and fats; exercise; and behavior modification

42. 3. ?Phospholipids One fatty acid is replaced with a phosphate. The negative charge(s) of the phosphate makes the ?head? of the phospholipid hydrophilic. The long, hydrocarbon tail is non-polar and, therefore, hydrophobic.

43. ????

44. 4. Cholesterol and steroids: Structure is a lipid with 4 carbon rings with various functional groups attached Cholesterol has many biological uses, such as its occurrence in the cell membranes, and its role in forming the sheath of some neurons. Excess cholesterol in the blood has been linked to atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries. Steroids are mainly used as hormones in living things

45. D. Nucleic Acids

46.

47. Structure of DNA Structure of tRNA -double strand of nucleotides -single strand of nucleotides

49. RNA differs from DNA in the following ways: RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded. RNA has a sugar called ribose while DNA has a sugar called deoxyribose. RNA has the base uracil while DNA has the base thymine.

50. How DNA & RNA work together DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material. It functions by storing information regarding the sequence of amino acids in each of the body?s proteins. This "list" of amino acid sequences is needed when proteins are synthesized. Before protein can be synthesized, the instructions in DNA must first be copied to another type of nucleic acid called messenger RNA.

51. 3 types RNA Messenger RNA, or mRNA. carries the code for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. It acts as a messenger. Transfer RNA or tRNA. picks up specific amino acids in the cytoplasm & brings them into position on ribosome where they are joined together in specific order to make a specific protein. Ribosomal RNA or rRNA ?place for protein synthesis

52. How a protein is built


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