Ch 9 motivation theories principles
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CH 9 MOTIVATION: THEORIES & PRINCIPLES. MOTIVES:. The term motive is derived from Latin word ‘movere’. It means to move. Motive is defined as an inner state that energises, activates and directs the behavior of individuals towards certain goals.

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CH 9 MOTIVATION: THEORIES & PRINCIPLES

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Ch 9 motivation theories principles

CH 9 MOTIVATION: THEORIES & PRINCIPLES


Motives

MOTIVES:

  • The term motive is derived from Latin word ‘movere’. It means to move. Motive is defined as an inner state that energises, activates and directs the behavior of individuals towards certain goals.

  • the strong need or motive creates high tension or disequilibrium in a person and makes him restless until the need is fulfilled.

  • Motives induce the individuals to channel their behavior towards those actions which would reduce the disequilibrium.


Content theories of motivation

CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

  • Content theory of motivation outline what workers want and need and therefore what tools must a manager use to motivate their subordinates.

  • There are 4 theories classified in content theory of motivation. They are:

  • HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY

  • MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY

  • ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY

  • Mc CLELLAND’s ACHIEVEMENT THEORY


2 maslow s hierarchy of needs theory

2. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY


3 alderfer s erg theory

3. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY

  • A modification of Maslow’s need hierarchy was proposed by Clay Alderfer.

  • He did a survey wherein questionnaires were given to over 200 employees at several levels in bank.

  • He proposed that there are 3 primary categories of human needs:

  • EXISTENCE: the basic psychological needs

  • RELATEDNESS: social and affiliation needs and the need for respect and positive regard from others

  • GROWTH: the needs to develop and realize one’s potential.


4 mc clelland s achievement theory

4. Mc CLELLAND’s ACHIEVEMENT THEORY

  • This theory has been advocated by David. C. Mc Clelland and his associates. They studied the 3 needs that motivate human behaviour- power, affiliation and achievement.

  • He believed that people need all the above stated need but people differ to degree to which the needs motivate their behaviour.

  • NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT: employees with high need for achievement derive satisfaction from achieving goals.

  • NEED FOR POWER: the employees exhibiting the need for power derive satisfaction from the ability to control others.

  • NEED FOR AFFILIATION: individuals with affiliation needs derive satisfaction from social and interpersonal activities.


Matching the content theory

MATCHING THE CONTENT THEORY

NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY

ERG THEORY

TWO FACTOR THEORY

Need for achievement

Self actualization

growth

motivators

Need for power

esteem

relatedness

belongingness

hygiene

Need for affiliation

security

existence

psychological


Vroom s expectancy theory of motivation

VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION:

  • According to Victor Vroom the motivation of any individual depends on the desired goal and the strength of his expectation of achieving the goal. Vroom’s model is built on mainly three concepts- valence, instrumentality and expectancy.

  • 4 variables play an important role in expectancy theory. They are:

  • FIRST LEVEL & SECOND LEVEL OUTCOMES

  • EXPECTANCY:

    it is the belief that a particular level of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance.

    3. INSTRUMENTALITY:

    this is the perception by an individual that first level outcomes are associated with second level outcomes. In other words, it the relationship between the first and the second level outcomes.

    4. VALENCE:

    Valence is the strength of an individual ‘s preference for a particular outcome.


Equity theory of motivation

EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION

INEQUITY OCCURS WHEN:

Person’s outcomes Other’s outcomes

<

Person’s inputs Other’s inputs

Person’s outcomes Other’s outcomes

>

Person’s inputs Other’s inputs

EQUITY OCCURS WHEN

Person’s inputs Other’s inputs

=

Person’s outcomes Other’s outcomes


Goal setting theory

GOAL SETTING THEORY

  • The basic idea behind goal setting theory is that a goal serves as a motivator because it causes people to focus their inputs and their jobs and thei organizations.

  • Goals are used for two purposes in organisation:

  • As a motivational device

  • As a control device

  • It is the job of a manager to ensure that employees divert their resources towards achieving goal.


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