Reservoir well integrity aspects of carbon capture and storage
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Reservoir – Well Integrity Aspects of Carbon Capture and Storage. Mahmut Sengul Schlumberger Carbon Services Ankara December 5, 2006. Outline. Carbon Capture and Storage Challenges Monitoring QRA Examples Way Forward. CCS Challenges. Enhancing oil recovery of existing fields

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Reservoir well integrity aspects of carbon capture and storage

Reservoir – Well Integrity Aspects of Carbon Capture and Storage

Mahmut Sengul

Schlumberger Carbon Services

Ankara

December 5, 2006


Outline

Outline

  • Carbon Capture and Storage

  • Challenges

  • Monitoring

  • QRA

  • Examples

  • Way Forward


Ccs challenges

CCS Challenges

  • Enhancing oil recovery of existing fields

  • Pursuing development of marginal fields,

  • Commercialization of high CO2 content gas reservoirs

  • Continuing exploration in traditional acreages and unexplored areas, deep water


Co 2 storage project

CO2 Storage Project

Performance & Risk Assessment

Field Dev. Plan

Activities

Verification

Characterization

Site Selection

Monitoring

Pre-Operation Operation Post-Storage

1.0

10

100

1000

Time (yrs.)


Co 2 leakage path

CO2 Leakage Path


Identification and assessment of leakage pathways

CO2 - Rock interactions

CO2 - Well interactions

Diffusion

Interfaces

Hydraulic fracturing

Escape through cement

Fault crossing

Corrosion

Migration along fault

Storage

SEAL

RES. 1

RES. 2

CO2 - Fluid interactions

Diagenetic front

Hydrodynamism / Dispersion

FAULT

Spill points

CO2

Oil

HC gas

Aquifer

Identification and Assessment of Leakage Pathways

Modified after Total


Well leakage

Well Leakage

  • Casing

    • Corrosion

  • Cement

    • Micro-annulus

    • Cement alteration

    • Micro-cracks


Monitoring tools

Monitoring Tools

Verification Monitoring – CO2 Displacement

Verification Monitoring – Cap rock integrity

Verification Monitoring – Well Integrity

Environment Monitoring

Operation Monitoring

P,T, Volume, RateX

Seismic / VSP’s X X

MicroseismicityX X X

EM Surveys X

Cased-Hole Logging: CHFR,RST X

Sampling X X

Pressure tests X

Sonic: MSIP X

Ultrasonic: USIT/IBC X

Corrosion X

CO2-Sensors X X X X


Casing corrosion

Casing Corrosion

  • Image of inside or outside casing radius

  • 3D Viewer


Seal elastomer selection for sour services

Seal Elastomer Selection for Sour Services


Ensuring long term wellbore isolation through co 2 resistant cement

Ensuring Long Term Wellbore Isolation through CO2-resistant Cement

  • Even oilfield cements performance tend to degrade with time leading to CO2 leakage

Development of Novel

Experimental Methods and

Cementing Systems


Co 2 interaction with portland cement

  • Need for a CO2-Resistant Cement

CO2 Interaction with Portland Cement

  • CO2 in presence of water results in a acidic environment

    • Carbonic acid

  • Chemical reactions in presence of Calcium

    • Carbonation

    • Dissolution

  • With

    • Variations of molar volume

    • Changes in Porosity, Permeability


Zonal isolation well completion integrity co 2 resistant cement

Fresh water

Standard Neat system

Advanced cement system

Shale

Salt water or oil

Carbonation rim: 0.2 mm

Carbonation rim: 6 mm

Zonal Isolation - Well & Completion IntegrityCO2 Resistant Cement

90°C-280 bars - One month - Supercritical CO2

Movie


Neat vs new co 2 resistant cement

280 bar – 90 deg. C – 0.5 inch diameter, 2 inch long cores

Neat vs New CO2-Resistant Cement

Neat

%

One week

One month

New Cement


Carbonation dissolution process

Carbonation/Dissolution Process

Neat cement – 90 deg.C, 280 bars – 44 hours


Hydraulic communication

Hydraulic Communication


Well integrity assessment ultrasonic measurements

Fresh water

Shale

Salt water or oil

Well Integrity Assessment – Ultrasonic Measurements

To Assess Cement Bonding and Detect Hydraulic Conductivity

Cement / Formation

Casing / Cement


Imaging behind casing tool design

Imaging Behind Casing – Tool Design


Imaging behind casing flexural mode

R2

R1

Cement

Imaging Behind Casing - Flexural Mode


Cement evaluation challenges

USIT

Acoustic Impedance

Increasing Contamination

8

6

4

2

0

Neat

LiteCrete bond quality unclear

Light

Gas

Liquid

Cement

Contaminated

Cement

Cement

Water

Gas

Cement Evaluation Challenges


Imaging behind casing

Air

FWI

Flexural Impedance

Water

Debonded

LiteCrete

LiteCrete

Class G

Tail cement

Cement

Water

Gas

Imaging Behind Casing

Neat

USIT

Acoustic Impedance

Light

Gas

Liquid

Cement

Contaminated

Cement


Channeled section in litecrete cement

Example:

Channeled section in LiteCRETE cement

Not identified

by USIT and CBL!


Sonic cement evaluation

Sonic Cement Evaluation

Evaluation of cementing job quality,

Using sonic measurements

Casing mode attenuation is the function of cement bonding.


Msip cement evaluation improvement

5ft Receivers

DCBL

Using azimuthal data, MSIP DCBL is free of eccentralization effects up to 1/3”

3ft Receivers

MSIP Cement Evaluation Improvement

  • MSIP BHC configuration enables discriminated CBL (DCBL)

    • Corrected for pipe and cement type

  • And independent of

    • Fluid effects, pressure, temperature

    • Tool normalization


Emi co 2 storage in frio field tx usa

  • August 2004: Crosswell Resistivity Baseline survey is acquired between the CO2 Injector well and the monitoring well 30m away. Both wells are cased.

30m

EMI CO2 Storage in Frio Field, TX, USA

Monitoring Well

Injector Well

  • October 2004: 1600m3 CO2 are injected in the C-Sand layer.

  • December 2004: A second Resistivity survey is performed after CO2 injection is stopped.

  • Processing shows change in Resistivity between the 2 surveys due to CO2 migration

  • Further interpretation with integration of the petrophysical model built from borehole logs allows to characterize saturation changes due to the CO2 migration


Monitoring using rst s measurement

Monitoring Using RST – S Measurement

CO2 Injection : Start – Oct 4th / Stop - Oct 14th

RST logging in the injection well

(*) Sakurai et al. , SPWLA 46th – June 26-29th - 2005


Microseismics

Microseismics

  • Main applications:

  • Injection control

    • Avoid fracturing cap rock

    • Control CO2 displacement

  • Fault Re-activation


Microseismic co 2 injector and monitoring wells

IW

approx. 100 m

OW 2

approx. 50 m

OW 1

Microseismic: CO2 Injector and Monitoring Wells

Planned


Sleipner seismic monitoring results

1994

1999

2001

2002

Sleipner Seismic Monitoring Results

“Leakage” into

Sand wedge

Courtesy SACS2


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Reservoir integrity issues:

    • fault activation, caprock integrity,dissolution, precipitation

  • Wellbore Completion Integrity Issues in CCS:

    • Cement Integrity, Steel Corrosion

    • Completion Accessories

  • Technologies exist to address;

    • Integrity assessment and continuous monitoring

  • More high volume demonstration projects needed

  • Collaboration with all players is a must for success


Thank you questions

Thank YouQuestions?


Mea co 2 projects

MEA CO2 Projects


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