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Chapter 1. The Peopling of the World Prehistory-2500 B.C. Section 1: Human Origins in Africa. Scientists Search for Human Origins. Prehistory 5,000 years ago a time before writing. Scientific Clues. Archaeologists

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

The Peopling of the World

Prehistory-2500 B.C.


Section 1: Human Origins in Africa


Scientists Search for Human Origins

  • Prehistory

    • 5,000 years ago a time before writing


Scientific Clues

  • Archaeologists

    • Specially trained scientists who work to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples

    • Archaeological digs are used to learn about early people

    • Study artifacts: human –made objects

  • Anthropologists

    • study culture: people’s unique way of life

  • Paleontologists

    • study fossils: evidence of early life preserved in rocks


Culture

  • Definition: shared ways (traits) of doing things

  • Components of Culture

    • Common practices, shared understandings and social organization

  • How Culture is Learned

    • Observation and imitation

    • Taught through written or spoken language


Early Footprints Found

  • 1970’s

    • Mary Leaky

    • Laetoli in Tanzania in East Africa


  • 1978

    • Prehistoric footprints found in preserved volcanic ash

    • Australopithecines created footprints

    • Creatures that walk upright are

      called hominids


The Discovery of “Lucy”

  • U.S. anthropologist, Donald Johanson

  • Ethiopia

  • 1974

  • Adult female hominid

  • Nicknamed “Lucy” after the song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds

  • 3.5 Millions years old


Lucy and other hominids who walked upright were australopithecines.

Walking helped them travel and watch for danger, carry food and children

Opposable thumbs were developed

Hominids Walk Upright


Earlier and longer part of the Stone Age is called the Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age

Invention of tools, fire and language

2.5 million to 8000 B.C.

The Old Stone Age Begins


New Stone Age or Neolithic Age

8000 B.C. – 3000 B.C.

Polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops and raise animals

The Old Stone Age Begins Continued…


Homo HabilisMay Have Used Tools

  • 1960

  • Louis and Mary Leakey

  • Oldavai Gorge northern Tanzania

  • 2.5 m.y.a fossil

  • Named Homo habilis

    “man of skill”

  • Tools found with fossil


Homo ErectusDevelops Technology

  • 1.6 m.y.a

  • Homo erectus “upright man”

  • More intelligent and adaptable

    species

  • Developed technology

  • First hominids to migrate from Africa

  • First to use fire

  • May have begun spoken language


Believed that Homo erectus developed into Homo sapiens, “wise men”

The Dawn of Modern Humans


Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons traditionally are classified as early groups of Homo sapiens

1997 DNA tests has shown that Neanderthals were not ancestors of modern humans.

The Dawn of Modern Humans Continued…


Neanderthal’s Way of Life

  • Quarry workers

  • Neander Valley in Germany

  • 200,000 to 30,000 y.a. fossils

  • Developed religious beliefs and held rituals

  • 60,000 y.a. funeral held in Shanidar cave in eastern Iraq

  • Lived in caves or shelters made of wood and animal skins

  • Mysteriously vanished about 30,000 y.a.


Cro-Magnons Emerge

  • 40,000 y.a.

  • Identical to modern humans

  • 5’ 1/2” feet tall

  • Migrated from North Africa to

    Europe and Asia

  • New tools, planned hunts


New Findings Add to Knowledge


Fossils, Tools, and Cave Paintings

  • Chad and Kenya

    • Toumai

  • Ethopia

    • 2.33 m.y.a

  • Canada

    • Flute

  • What has been found in these areas?


Cave Paintings

  • Found on every continent

  • Oldest 35,000 y.a

    Cuevas de las Manos, Argentina

  • Discuss the differences between paintings found in Europe and Africa versus Americas and Australia

  • What are the purposes of cave paintings?


Chapter 1 Section 2

Humans Try to Control Nature


Early Advances in Technology and Art


Tools Needed to Survive

  • Old Stone Age people were Nomads and became known as hunters and gatherers.


Artistic Expression in the Paleolithic Age


The Beginnings of Agriculture

  • 10,000 y.a seeds planted which they harvested the next season

  • Neolitic Revolution (agricultural revolution) began

  • Shift from food-gathering to food-producing


Causes of the Agricultural Revolution

  • Worldwide rising temperatures

  • Population increased

  • Farming provided a steady source of food


Early Farming Methods

  • Slash-and-burn farming

  • Ashes fertilized the soil


The Neolithic Ice Man

  • Otzi


Domestication of Animals

  • Taming of animals

    came slowly

  • Hunters driven herds

    into ravines to be

    slaughtered


Agriculture in Jarmo

  • 9,000 y.a

  • Zagros Mts, northeastern Iraq

  • Robert Braidwood

  • Birthplace of agriculture


Villages Grow and Prosper

  • Farming Develops in Many Places

    • Africa, China, Mexico and Central America, Peru

    • What was grown in each of these areas and where?


Catal Huyuk

  • Village found in south-central Turkey, 1958

  • Homed 5,000-6,000 people

  • What are the advantages/disadvantages?


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