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Chapter 1. The Peopling of the World Prehistory-2500 B.C. Section 1: Human Origins in Africa. Scientists Search for Human Origins. Prehistory 5,000 years ago a time before writing. Scientific Clues. Archaeologists

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

The Peopling of the World

Prehistory-2500 B.C.



Scientists search for human origins
Scientists Search for Human Origins

  • Prehistory

    • 5,000 years ago a time before writing


Scientific clues
Scientific Clues

  • Archaeologists

    • Specially trained scientists who work to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples

    • Archaeological digs are used to learn about early people

    • Study artifacts: human –made objects

  • Anthropologists

    • study culture: people’s unique way of life

  • Paleontologists

    • study fossils: evidence of early life preserved in rocks


Culture
Culture

  • Definition: shared ways (traits) of doing things

  • Components of Culture

    • Common practices, shared understandings and social organization

  • How Culture is Learned

    • Observation and imitation

    • Taught through written or spoken language


Early footprints found
Early Footprints Found

  • 1970’s

    • Mary Leaky

    • Laetoli in Tanzania in East Africa


  • 1978

    • Prehistoric footprints found in preserved volcanic ash

    • Australopithecines created footprints

    • Creatures that walk upright are

      called hominids


The Discovery of “Lucy”

  • U.S. anthropologist, Donald Johanson

  • Ethiopia

  • 1974

  • Adult female hominid

  • Nicknamed “Lucy” after the song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds

  • 3.5 Millions years old


Hominids walk upright

Lucy and other hominids who walked upright were australopithecines.

Walking helped them travel and watch for danger, carry food and children

Opposable thumbs were developed

Hominids Walk Upright


The old stone age begins

Earlier and longer part of the Stone Age is called the Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age

Invention of tools, fire and language

2.5 million to 8000 B.C.

The Old Stone Age Begins


The old stone age begins continued

New Stone Age or Neolithic Age Stone Age or Paleolithic Age

8000 B.C. – 3000 B.C.

Polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops and raise animals

The Old Stone Age Begins Continued…


Homo habilis may have used tools
Homo Habilis Stone Age or Paleolithic AgeMay Have Used Tools

  • 1960

  • Louis and Mary Leakey

  • Oldavai Gorge northern Tanzania

  • 2.5 m.y.a fossil

  • Named Homo habilis

    “man of skill”

  • Tools found with fossil


Homo erectus develops technology
Homo Erectus Stone Age or Paleolithic AgeDevelops Technology

  • 1.6 m.y.a

  • Homo erectus “upright man”

  • More intelligent and adaptable

    species

  • Developed technology

  • First hominids to migrate from Africa

  • First to use fire

  • May have begun spoken language


The dawn of modern humans

Believed that Homo erectus developed into Homo sapiens, “wise men”

The Dawn of Modern Humans


The dawn of modern humans continued

Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons traditionally are classified as early groups of Homo sapiens

1997 DNA tests has shown that Neanderthals were not ancestors of modern humans.

The Dawn of Modern Humans Continued…


Neanderthal s way of life
Neanderthal’s Way of Life early groups of

  • Quarry workers

  • Neander Valley in Germany

  • 200,000 to 30,000 y.a. fossils

  • Developed religious beliefs and held rituals

  • 60,000 y.a. funeral held in Shanidar cave in eastern Iraq

  • Lived in caves or shelters made of wood and animal skins

  • Mysteriously vanished about 30,000 y.a.


Cro magnons emerge
Cro-Magnons Emerge early groups of

  • 40,000 y.a.

  • Identical to modern humans

  • 5’ 1/2” feet tall

  • Migrated from North Africa to

    Europe and Asia

  • New tools, planned hunts



Fossils tools and cave paintings
Fossils, Tools, and Cave Paintings early groups of

  • Chad and Kenya

    • Toumai

  • Ethopia

    • 2.33 m.y.a

  • Canada

    • Flute

  • What has been found in these areas?


Cave paintings
Cave Paintings early groups of

  • Found on every continent

  • Oldest 35,000 y.a

    Cuevas de las Manos, Argentina

  • Discuss the differences between paintings found in Europe and Africa versus Americas and Australia

  • What are the purposes of cave paintings?


Chapter 1 section 2

Chapter 1 Section 2 early groups of

Humans Try to Control Nature



Tools needed to survive
Tools Needed to Survive early groups of

  • Old Stone Age people were Nomads and became known as hunters and gatherers.



The beginnings of agriculture
The Beginnings of Agriculture early groups of

  • 10,000 y.a seeds planted which they harvested the next season

  • Neolitic Revolution (agricultural revolution) began

  • Shift from food-gathering to food-producing


Causes of the agricultural revolution
Causes of the Agricultural Revolution early groups of

  • Worldwide rising temperatures

  • Population increased

  • Farming provided a steady source of food


Early farming methods
Early Farming Methods early groups of

  • Slash-and-burn farming

  • Ashes fertilized the soil


The neolithic ice man
The Neolithic Ice Man early groups of

  • Otzi


Domestication of animals
Domestication of Animals early groups of

  • Taming of animals

    came slowly

  • Hunters driven herds

    into ravines to be

    slaughtered


Agriculture in jarmo
Agriculture in Jarmo early groups of

  • 9,000 y.a

  • Zagros Mts, northeastern Iraq

  • Robert Braidwood

  • Birthplace of agriculture


Villages grow and prosper
Villages Grow and Prosper early groups of

  • Farming Develops in Many Places

    • Africa, China, Mexico and Central America, Peru

    • What was grown in each of these areas and where?


Catal huyuk
Catal Huyuk early groups of

  • Village found in south-central Turkey, 1958

  • Homed 5,000-6,000 people

  • What are the advantages/disadvantages?


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