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The New Deal and its specific impact PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Women African Americans Indians Workers. The New Deal and its specific impact . Women and the New Deal. Led by Eleanor Roosevelt Roosevelt administration employed far more women than any previous administration had. Frances Perkins Secretary of Labor. Eleanor Roosevelt.

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The New Deal and its specific impact

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African Americans



The New Deal and its specific impact

Women and the New Deal

  • Led by Eleanor Roosevelt

  • Roosevelt administration employed far more women than any previous administration had.

  • Frances Perkins

    • Secretary of Labor

Eleanor Roosevelt

  • Relationship with FDR

  • Her marriage had “no fundamental love to draw on” so she threw herself into civic activities.

  • Published a weekly newspaper column

Eleanor Roosevelt and the poor

African americans and the new deal

The New deal and African Americans

  • In 1928 FDR (as a VP candidate) won just 28% of the black vote.

  • In 1932 FDR won 71% of the black vote.

  • What explains this shift?

  • Why did Blacks overwhelmingly support the New Deal?

  • Was the New Deal pro-civil rights?

The New deal and race

  • New Deal provided:

    Roosevelt! You're my man!When the time come I ain't got a centYou buy my groceriesAnd pay my rent.

    Mr. Roosevelt, you're my man

  • Establishment of the Black Cabinet under Mary McCleod Bethune

  • Civilian Conservation Corps and the Public Works Administration, gave them much-needed aid and jobs

A New deal for Indians?

  • Secretary of Indian Affairs: John Collier

  • “We Took Away Their Best Lands, Broke Treaties”

  • Revocation of the Dawes Act

  • Indian Reorganization Act

  • Encouraged a reestablishment of tribalism

Roosevelt and labor

Roosevelt and Labor

  • Passed the NLRB

  • “Supported” workers even in their worst strikes

  • GM Strike of 1937

  • “It is illegal, but shutting them out is not the answer. Why can’t {GM} meet with the workers?”

  • Result: all automobile manufacturers except Ford sign on with UAW.

Labor and the new deal

  • 40 hour work week and higher wages in steel industry

  • Auto and steel unions had 750,000 members by 1937

  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    • Abolished child labor

    • A national minimum wage of .40

    • Overtime paid at time and a half

The New Deal in Conclusion

The New deal in history

Great legacies? TVA

Social Security

Role of Roosevelt

  • Had little to do with the programs details.

  • “Skimpy” knowledge of economics

  • “Roosevelt’s first class temperament is compensated by his second class intellect”

  • Pioneer of communicating with people

  • Great president despite his awful administrative shortcomings (giving jobs to multiple depts etc…)


  • “Roosevelt was not really very much at home with ideas, but he forbade inaction when there was something to be done”

  • Rex Tugwell Brains Trust


  • Given the context of the overall goal end the depression…it failed.

  • There are differing interpretations on this (see text)

  • Roosevelt Recession of 1937 (next slide)

  • Mixed strategy, balance budget—deficit spending. Sometimes acted against one another.

  • Beginning in the fall of 1937, industrial production fell by 33 percent

  • national income dropped by 12 percent

  • industrial stock prices plummeted by 50 percent

  • Nearly 4 million people lost their jobs, and the total number of unemployed increased to 11.5 million


  • Even a member of FDR’s administration, the committed New Dealer Alvin Hansen, admitted in 1940 that “I really do not know what the basic principle of the New Deal is.”

Packing the Courts

  • Due to court opposition to the AAA Roosevelt sought to increase the number of justices—giving him the ability to put 6 new justices on the court!

  • Adds to the failure…damages Roosevelt’s legacy.

Recovery attempts? 1938

  • FDR asked Congress for a $5 billion relief program, which passed in the spring and summer of 1938.

  • Despite this infusion of federal money into the economy, the nation still suffered from under-consumption and lay mired in depression.

  • In 1939, over 19 percent of the nation’s work force remained unemployed. Stock prices had yet to recover from the crash of the late 1920s.


  • Liberals? Federal Government should accept responsibility for the national welfare.

  • Conservatives? Likely strongly disagree as this creates soaring spending and infringes on individual rights

  • Regardless—almost all are struck by its boldness of action.

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