Chapter 16 section 3
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Chapter 16 Section 3. Behavior of Gases. Pressure. Gas particles are constantly moving and colliding, which results in pressure (Force/area) Containers (balloons, tires) remain inflated because particles collide with the walls of the container

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Chapter 16 Section 3

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Chapter 16 section 3

Chapter 16 Section 3

Behavior of Gases


Pressure

Pressure

  • Gas particles are constantly moving and colliding, which results in pressure (Force/area)

  • Containers (balloons, tires) remain inflated because particles collide with the walls of the container

  • If more particles of gas are pumped into the container, there will be more collisions and the walls will be pushed further outward


Pascal

Pascal

  • Pressure is measured in pascals (Pa)

  • 1 Pa = 1 N/1m2

  • 1000 Pa = 1 kPa

  • At Earth’s surface, the atmosperic pressure = 101.3 kPa

    • 101,300 N per square meter


Boyle s law

Boyle’s Law

  • What happens to gas pressure if you decrease the size of the container?

  • Particles will strike each other and the walls more often, increasing pressure

  • If you give the gas particles more space, they will hit the walls less often, pressure will decrease

  • Weather balloons


Boyle s law in action volume pressure equation

Boyle’s Law in Action (Volume-Pressure Equation)

  • A balloon has a volume of 10.0 L at a pressure of 101 kPa. What will be the new volume when the pressure drops to 43.0 kPa?

  • P1V1 = P2V2

  • 101 x 10.0 = 43.0 x V2

  • 1010 = 43.0 x V2

    43.0 43.0

  • 23.5 L = V2


The pressure temperature relationship

The Pressure-Temperature Relationship

  • Why do you need to keep pressurized spray canisters away from heat?

  • Hotter temp. = faster moving particles (more collisions with the walls)

  • Volume can’t be increased (rigid canister)

  • Pressure increases

  • Canister will explode


Charles s law

Charles’s Law

  • Gases expand when they are heated (hot air balloons)

  • Hot air is less dense than cool air

  • The volume of gas increases with increasing temp.

    (also, the volume of gas decreases with decreasing temp)

  • Gas is heated  particles move faster  particles strike the walls of their container more often and with more force  Larger volume


Using charles s law

Using Charles’s Law

  • Temperature must be in Kelvin

  • V1 = V2

    T1 T2

  • What would be the resulting volume of a 2.0 L balloon at 25 C that was placed in a container with ice water at 3 C ?

  • T1 = 25 C + 273 = 298 K

  • T2 = 3 C + 273 = 276 K

  • 2 = V2

    298 276

  • 2 x 276 = 298 x V2

  • 552 = 298 x V2

  • 1.9 L = V2


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