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Chapter 16 Section 3

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Chapter 16 Section 3

Behavior of Gases

- Gas particles are constantly moving and colliding, which results in pressure (Force/area)
- Containers (balloons, tires) remain inflated because particles collide with the walls of the container
- If more particles of gas are pumped into the container, there will be more collisions and the walls will be pushed further outward

- Pressure is measured in pascals (Pa)
- 1 Pa = 1 N/1m2
- 1000 Pa = 1 kPa
- At Earth’s surface, the atmosperic pressure = 101.3 kPa
- 101,300 N per square meter

- What happens to gas pressure if you decrease the size of the container?
- Particles will strike each other and the walls more often, increasing pressure
- If you give the gas particles more space, they will hit the walls less often, pressure will decrease
- Weather balloons

- A balloon has a volume of 10.0 L at a pressure of 101 kPa. What will be the new volume when the pressure drops to 43.0 kPa?
- P1V1 = P2V2
- 101 x 10.0 = 43.0 x V2
- 1010 = 43.0 x V2
43.0 43.0

- 23.5 L = V2

- Why do you need to keep pressurized spray canisters away from heat?
- Hotter temp. = faster moving particles (more collisions with the walls)
- Volume can’t be increased (rigid canister)
- Pressure increases
- Canister will explode

- Gases expand when they are heated (hot air balloons)
- Hot air is less dense than cool air
- The volume of gas increases with increasing temp.
(also, the volume of gas decreases with decreasing temp)

- Gas is heated particles move faster particles strike the walls of their container more often and with more force Larger volume

- Temperature must be in Kelvin
- V1 = V2
T1 T2

- What would be the resulting volume of a 2.0 L balloon at 25 C that was placed in a container with ice water at 3 C ?

- T1 = 25 C + 273 = 298 K
- T2 = 3 C + 273 = 276 K
- 2 = V2
298 276

- 2 x 276 = 298 x V2
- 552 = 298 x V2
- 1.9 L = V2