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Chapter 16 Section 3. Behavior of Gases. Pressure. Gas particles are constantly moving and colliding, which results in pressure (Force/area) Containers (balloons, tires) remain inflated because particles collide with the walls of the container

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chapter 16 section 3

Chapter 16 Section 3

Behavior of Gases

pressure
Pressure
  • Gas particles are constantly moving and colliding, which results in pressure (Force/area)
  • Containers (balloons, tires) remain inflated because particles collide with the walls of the container
  • If more particles of gas are pumped into the container, there will be more collisions and the walls will be pushed further outward
pascal
Pascal
  • Pressure is measured in pascals (Pa)
  • 1 Pa = 1 N/1m2
  • 1000 Pa = 1 kPa
  • At Earth’s surface, the atmosperic pressure = 101.3 kPa
    • 101,300 N per square meter
boyle s law
Boyle’s Law
  • What happens to gas pressure if you decrease the size of the container?
  • Particles will strike each other and the walls more often, increasing pressure
  • If you give the gas particles more space, they will hit the walls less often, pressure will decrease
  • Weather balloons
boyle s law in action volume pressure equation
Boyle’s Law in Action (Volume-Pressure Equation)
  • A balloon has a volume of 10.0 L at a pressure of 101 kPa. What will be the new volume when the pressure drops to 43.0 kPa?
  • P1V1 = P2V2
  • 101 x 10.0 = 43.0 x V2
  • 1010 = 43.0 x V2

43.0 43.0

  • 23.5 L = V2
the pressure temperature relationship
The Pressure-Temperature Relationship
  • Why do you need to keep pressurized spray canisters away from heat?
  • Hotter temp. = faster moving particles (more collisions with the walls)
  • Volume can’t be increased (rigid canister)
  • Pressure increases
  • Canister will explode
charles s law
Charles’s Law
  • Gases expand when they are heated (hot air balloons)
  • Hot air is less dense than cool air
  • The volume of gas increases with increasing temp.

(also, the volume of gas decreases with decreasing temp)

  • Gas is heated  particles move faster  particles strike the walls of their container more often and with more force  Larger volume
using charles s law
Using Charles’s Law
  • Temperature must be in Kelvin
  • V1 = V2

T1 T2

  • What would be the resulting volume of a 2.0 L balloon at 25 C that was placed in a container with ice water at 3 C ?
  • T1 = 25 C + 273 = 298 K
  • T2 = 3 C + 273 = 276 K
  • 2 = V2

298 276

  • 2 x 276 = 298 x V2
  • 552 = 298 x V2
  • 1.9 L = V2
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