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Chapter 2. Norton Media Library. Chapter 2. American Beginnings, 1607–1650. Eric Foner. I. Jamestown. II. The Coming of the English. English Colonists Sustained immigration was vital for the settlement’s survival

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Chapter 2
Chapter 2

Norton Media Library

Chapter 2

American

Beginnings,

1607–1650

Eric Foner



Ii the coming of the english
II. The Coming of the English

  • English Colonists

    • Sustained immigration was vital for the settlement’s survival

    • Between 1607 and 1700, a little over half-a-million persons left England

      • They settled in Ireland, the West Indies, and North America

      • The majority in North America were young, single men from the bottom rungs of English society

  • Indentured Servants

    • Two-thirds of English settlers came to North America as indentured servants

    • Indentured servants did not enjoy any liberties while under contract


Ii the coming of the english con t
II. The Coming of the English (con’t)

  • Land and Liberty

    • Land was the basis of liberty

  • Englishmen and Indians

    • The English were chiefly interested in displacing the Indians and settling on their land

    • Most colonial authorities in practice recognized Indians’ title to land based on occupancy

    • The seventeenth century was marked by recurrent warfare between colonists and Indians

      • Wars gave the English a heightened sense of superiority


Ii the coming of the english con t1
II. The Coming of the English (con’t)

  • Changes in Indian Life

    • English goods were eagerly integrated into Indian life

    • Over time, those European goods changed Indian farming, hunting, and cooking practices

      • Exchanges with Europeans stimulated warfare among Indian tribes

    • As the English sought to reshape Indian society and culture, their practices only undermined traditional Indian society


Iii settling the chesapeake
III. Settling the Chesapeake

  • The Jamestown Colony

    • Settlement and survival were questionable in the colony’s early history because of high death rates, frequent changes in leadership, inadequate supplies from England, and placing gold before farming

    • By 1616, about 80 percent of the immigrants who had arrived in the first decade were dead

    • John Smith began to get the colony on its feet and new policies were adopted in 1618 so that the colony could survive:

      • headright system

      • a charter of grants and liberties

      • slavery; the first slaves arrived in 1619


Iii settling the chesapeake con t
III. Settling the Chesapeake (con’t)

  • Powhatan’s World

    • Powhatan, the leader of thirty tribes near Jamestown, eagerly traded with the English

    • English-Indian relations were mostly peaceful initially

      • Pocahontas married John Rolfe in 1614, symbolizing Anglo-Indian harmony

  • The Uprising of 1622

    • Once the English decided on a permanent colony instead of merely a trading post, conflict was inevitable

      • Opechancanough led an attack on Virginia’s settlers in 1622

    • The English forced the Indians to recognize their subordination to the government at Jamestown and moved them onto reservations

    • The Virginia Company surrendered its charter to the crown in 1624


Iii settling the chesapeake con t1
III. Settling the Chesapeake (con’t)

  • A Tobacco Colony

    • Tobacco was Virginia’s “gold” and its production reached 30 million pounds by the 1680s

    • The expansion of tobacco led to an increased demand for field labor

  • Women and the Family

    • Virginian societies lacked a stable family life

    • Social conditions opened the door to roles women rarely assumed in England


Iii settling the chesapeake con t2
III. Settling the Chesapeake (con’t)

  • The Maryland Experiment

    • Maryland was established in 1632 as a proprietary colony under Cecilius Calvert

    • Calvert imagined Maryland as a feudal domain, but one that would act as a place of refuge for persecuted Catholics

    • Although Maryland had a high death rate, it seemed to have offered servants greater opportunity for land ownership than Virginia

    • Religious and political battles emerged and Maryland was on the verge of total anarchy in the 1640s

    • In 1649, the Act Concerning Religion was adopted, a milestone in the history of religious freedom in colonial America


Iv origins of american slavery
IV. Origins of American Slavery

  • Englishmen and Africans

    • The spread of tobacco led settlers to turn to slavery, which offered many advantages over indentured servants

    • In the early to mid seventeenth century, the concepts of race and racism had not fully developed

    • Africans were seen as alien in their color, religion, and social practices

  • Slavery in History

    • Although slavery has a long history, slavery in the North America was markedly different

    • Slavery developed slowly in the New World because slaves were expensive and their death rate was high in the seventeenth century


Origins of american slavery con t
Origins of American Slavery (con’t)

  • Slavery and the Law

    • The line between slavery and freedom was more permeable in the seventeenth century than it would later become

      • Some free blacks were allowed to sue and testify in court

      • Anthony Johnson arrived as a slave but became a slave-owning plantation owner

    • It was not until the 1660s that the laws of Virginia and Maryland explicitly referred to slavery

    • A Virginia law of 1662 provided that in the case of a child who had one free and one enslaved parent, the status of the offspring followed that of the mother

    • In 1667 the Virginia House of Burgesses decreed that religious conversion did not release a slave from bondage


Origins of american slavery con t1
Origins of American Slavery (con’t)

  • A Slave Society

    • A number of factors made slave labor very attractive to English settlers by the end of the seventeenth century, and slavery began to supplant indentured servitude between 1680 and 1700

    • By the early eighteenth century, Virginia had transformed from a society with slaves to a slave society

      • In 1705, the House of Burgesses enacted strict slave codes

  • Notions of Freedom

    • From the start of American slavery, blacks ran away and desired freedom

    • Settlers were well aware that the desire for freedom could ignite the slaves to rebel


V the new england way
V. The New England Way

  • The Rise of Puritanism

    • Puritanism emerged from the Protestant Reformation in England

      • Puritans believed that the Church of England retained too many elements of Catholicism

    • Puritans considered religious belief a complex and demanding matter, urging believers to seek the truth by reading the Bible and listening to sermons

      • Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin

    • Many Puritans immigrated to the New World in hopes of establishing a Bible Commonwealth that would eventually influence England

    • Puritans were governed by a “moral liberty”


V the new england way con t
V. The New England Way (con’t)

  • The Pilgrims at Plymouth

    • Pilgrims sailed in 1620 to Cape Cod aboard the Mayflower

      • Adult men signed the Mayflower Compact before going ashore

    • Squanto provided valuable help to the Pilgrims and the first Thanksgiving was celebrated in 1621


V the new england way con t1
V. The New England Way (con’t)

  • The Great Migration

    • The Massachusetts Bay Company was charted in 1629 by London merchants wanting to further the Puritan cause and to turn a profit from trade with the Indians

    • New England settlement was very different compared to the Chesapeake colonies

      • New England had a more equal balance of men and women

      • New England enjoyed a longer life expectancy

      • New England had more families

      • New England enjoyed a healthier climate


V the new england way con t2
V. The New England Way (con’t)

  • The Puritan Family

    • Puritans reproduced the family structure of England with men at the head of the household

    • Women were allowed full church membership and divorce was legal, but a woman was expected to obey her husband fully

    • Puritans believed that a woman achieved genuine freedom by fulfilling her prescribed social role and embracing subjection to her husband’s authority


V the new england way con t3
V. The New England Way (con’t)

  • Government and Society in Massachusetts

    • Massachusetts was organized into self-governing towns

      • Each town had a Congregational church and a school

      • To train an educated ministry, Harvard College was established in 1636

    • The freemen of Massachusetts elected their governor

    • Church government was decentralized

      • Full church membership was required to vote in colony-wide elections

      • Church and colonial government were intricately linked


V the new england way con t4
V. The New England Way (con’t)

  • Puritan Liberties

    • Puritans defined liberties by social rank, producing a rigid hierarchical society justified by God’s will

    • The Body of Liberties affirmed the rights of free speech and assembly and equal protection for all


Vi new england divided
VI. New England Divided

  • Roger Williams

    • A young Puritan minister, Williams preached that any citizen ought to be free to practice whatever form of religion he chose

    • Williams believed that it was essential to separate church and state

    • Williams was banished from Massachusetts in 1636 and he established Rhode Island

    • Rhode Island was truly a beacon of religious freedom and democratic government

    • Other former members of Massachusetts included New Haven and Hartford, which joined to become the colony of Connecticut in 1662


Vi new england divided con t
VI. New England Divided (con’t)

  • The Trials of Anne Hutchinson

    • Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman who charged that nearly all the ministers in Massachusetts were guilt of faulty preaching

    • Hutchinson was placed on trial in 1637 for sedition

      • On trial she spoke of divine revelations

      • She and her followers were banished

    • As seen with Williams and Hutchinson, Puritan New England was a place of religious persecution

      • Quakers were hanged in Massachusetts

      • Religious tolerance violated “moral liberty”


Vi new england divided con t1
VI. New England Divided (con’t)

  • Puritans and Indians

    • Colonial leaders had differing opinions about the English right to claim Indian land

    • To New England’s leaders, the Indians represented both savagery and temptation

      • The Connecticut General court set a penalty for anyone who chose to live with the Indians

      • No real attempt to convert the Indians was made by the Puritans in the first two decades

    • Colonists warred against the Pequots in 1637, exterminating the tribe


Vii the new england economy
VII. The New England Economy

  • Merchants

    • Most migrants were textile craftsmen and farmers

    • Fishing and timber were exported, but the economy centered on family farms

    • Per capita wealth was equally distributed compared to the Chesapeake

    • A powerful merchant class rose up, which occasionally clashed with the church


Vii the new england economy con t
VII. The New England Economy (con’t)

  • The Half-Way Covenant

    • By 1650, the church had to deal with the third generation of the Great Migration

    • In 1662, the Half-Way Covenant was a compromise for the grandchildren of the Great Migration, granting half-way membership into the church


European settlement in the chesapeake ca 1650 pg 56
European Settlement in the Chesapeake, ca. 1650 • pg. 56

European Settlement in the Chesapeake, ca. 1650


European settlement in new england ca 1640 pg 67
European Settlement in New England, ca. 1640 • pg. 67

European Settlementin New England, ca. 1640











End chap 2
End chap. 2

This concludes the Norton Media Library

Slide Set for Chapter 2

Give Me Liberty!

An American History

by

Eric Foner

W. W. Norton & CompanyIndependent and Employee-Owned


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