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UN Expert Group Meeting on Measuring International Migration December 4 – 7, 2006, UN New York MEASURING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN THE PHILIPPINES (With Focus on Emigration Statistics) by. Lina V. Castro. OUTLINE. Background Existing Data Generation Systems

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UN Expert Group Meeting on Measuring International Migration

December 4 –7, 2006, UN New York

MEASURING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN THE PHILIPPINES

(With Focus on Emigration Statistics)

  • by

Lina V. Castro


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OUTLINE

  • Background

  • Existing Data Generation Systems

  • Initiatives/Coordination Efforts in the PSS

  • Recommendations and Future Directions


I background the philippine statistical system l.jpg
I. Background The Philippine Statistical System

a decentralized system that is composed of:

  • a policy making and coordinating body, NSCB

  • a general purpose statistics producing agency, NSO

  • a statistical research and training center; and

  • all government agencies engaged in the generation of statistical information



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National Statistical Coordination Board

  • serves as the highest policy making and coordinating body on statistical matters in the Philippines

  • Functions

    • formulates policies

    • allocates responsibilities

    • coordinates and prescribes standards in the generation of statistics

    • designates statistical activities that will be undertaken by the government

    • Develops and maintains statistical frameworks (e.g. PSNA) 


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Existing Data Generation Systems in the PSS on Emigration

  • Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO)

  • Department of Tourism (DOT)

  • Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA)

  • National Statistics Office (NSO)


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1. Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO) Major Functions

  • Provide advice and assistance to the President and the Congress of the Philippines in the formulation of policies concerning or affecting Filipinos overseas;

  • Develop and implement programs to promote

  • the interests and well-being of Filipinos overseas;


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CFO Clientele

  • Filipino Emigrants and permanent residents abroad

  • Filipino Nationals who leave the country as spouses or other partners of foreign nationals

  • Descendants of Filipinos overseas

  • Filipino youths abroad

  • Exchange visitor program participants


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Statistics

  • Stock estimate on Overseas Filipinos

  • Statistics on Filipino Emigrants

a. Immigrants and Permanent Residents

b. Filipino spouses and fiancées of

foreign nationals


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In million

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF

FILIPINOS OVERSEAS

Sources: CFO, DFA, POEA and other sources


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Categories of Overseas Filipinos (CFO)

  • Permanent – immigrants or legal permanent residents abroad whose stay do not depend on work contracts

  • Temporary – persons whose stay overseas is employment related, and who are expected to return at the end of their work contracts

  • Irregular – those not properly documented or without valid residence or work permits, or who are overstaying in a foreign country


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Year

Permanent Residents

Temporary Residents

Irregular Migrants

Total

1995

6.41

1996

1.92

2.71

1.86

6.49

1997

2.15

2.94

1.88

6.97

1998

2.33

2.96

1.91

7.20

1999

2.48

2.98

1.83

7.29

2000

2.55

2.99

1.84

7.38

2001

2.74

3.05

1.62

7.41

3.16

2002

2.82

1.60

7.58

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF

FILIPINOS OVERSEAS

Sources: CFO, DFA, POEA and other sources


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OVERSEAS

FILIPINO

WORKERS

3.17M

PERMANENT

RESIDENTS

2.81M

IRREGULAR

1.60M

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF OVERSEAS FILIPINOS

(As of December 2002)

Sources : CFO

POEA

PECs

TOTAL NUMBER OF OVERSEAS FILIPINOS: 7.58 M


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Registered Filipino Emigrants

Source : CFO

N = 1,238,934


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Distribution of Registered Emigrants by Major Countries of Destination (1981-2003)

Other Countries: 24,115

(1.9 %)

TOTAL: 1,238,934

CANADA

169,443

(13.7 %)

U.K.

6,229

(0.5 %)

GERMANY

9,427

(0.8 %)

U.S.A.

869,973

(70.2 %)

JAPAN

68,419

(5.5 %)

AUSTRALIA

86,223

(7.0 %)


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SOURCES OF DATA Destination (1981-2003)

  • Emigrant registration from CFO

  • Statistics on departing overseas Filipino

    Workers from POEA

  • Reports from Philippine Embassies and

    Consulates

    i. From the number of passports issued

    ii. Reports on inter-marriages

    iii. Assistance-to-Nationals cases

    iv. Head Count


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SOURCES OF DATA Destination (1981-2003)

  • Statistics on tourist arrivals from DOT

  • Reports from Filipino associations and

    organizations overseas

  • Reports from foreign Embassies and

    Consulates

  • Census of foreign governments on their

    immigrant population


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LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS Destination (1981-2003)

  • Double counting

  • No comprehensive and accurate data on

    returning Filipinos

  • No comprehensive data on 2nd and 3rd

    generation overseas Filipinos

  • No available comprehensive data yet on

    those who acquired foreign citizenships


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AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT Destination (1981-2003)

  • Use of embarkation and disembarkation

    card of Bureau of Immigration to enhance

    collection of data on departing and

    returning Filipinos

  • Use of census on families of overseas

    Filipinos

  • Enhance the collection of data of

    Philippine Embassies and Consulates


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AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT Destination (1981-2003)

  • Adopt a specific and common procedure

    and mechanism in gathering statistics on

    overseas Filipinos (particularly on the

    number of irregular migrants)

  • Adopt common definition of terms and

    international statistical standards

  • Analysis and interpretation of statistical

    data and flow

  • Conduct an international conference on

    stock estimation of migrants


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Department of Tourism: CONCEPTS Destination (1981-2003)

OUTBOUND PHILIPPINE RESIDENTS:

“ … departures of Filipinos who are permanent residents of the Philippines as well as aliens and naturalized citizens of the Philippines with permanent residence in the country.”

Source: DOT Statistical Report


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Travel and Tourism Statistical System (TTSS) by DOT Destination (1981-2003)

  • Objectives

    • To generate statistics on the profile and travel characteristics of outbound Philippine residents, former Filipinos and overseas Filipinos


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TTSS Scope and Coverage Destination (1981-2003)

Included in Visitor CountNot Included in Visitor Count

Tourist Transit /change plane

Excursionist Aliens with pre-arranged

Cruise passengers employment in Phil.

Overseas Filipinos Immigrants

Overseas Filipino workers

Returning Residents


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TTSS Scope and Coverage Destination (1981-2003)

Included in OutboundNot Included in Outbound

Philippine Resident CountPhilippine Resident Count

Overseas Filipino Visitors/tourist to the Philippines Workers Overseas Filipinos

Foreign Residents/Expatriates

Filipino Residents


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TTSS Sources Destination (1981-2003)of Data

Arrival/ Departure Card

The Arrival/Departure Cards Processing Center (ADCPC) located in NAIA is responsible for the gathering, collection, encoding, data validation and downloading of initial files in NAIA, Cebu, Laoag, Davao, Subic and Clark. The downloaded data are further processed by the DOT’s TTSS.


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TTSS Outputs Destination (1981-2003)

  • Statistics on visitor arrivals by

    • country of residence

    • demographic profile

    • travel characteristics

    • mode of travel

    • port of entry

    • nationality

  • Statistics on the actual volume of Overseas Filipino permanent residents abroad

  • Statistics on former Filipino citizens by country of residence

  • Statistics on Outbound Philippine residents


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TTSS Outputs Destination (1981-2003)

  • Statistics on Outbound Philippine Residents

    • by port of disembarkation

    • demographic profile

    • travel characteristics

    • by nationality

    • mode of travel

    • port of entry


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3. Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

Shared OFW Database


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Mandate Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

Sec 20 of Republic Act No. 8042

  • Establishment of a Shared Government Information System for Migration

    DFA, Commission of Filipinos Overseas,

    DOLE, POEA, OWWA, DOT, DOJ,

    Bu of Immigration, NBI, NSO


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Concepts & Definitions Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Migrant Worker or OFW - a person who is to be engaged, or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a state of which he/she is not a legal resident

  • Documented OFW - a migrant worker with valid visa or work permit whose employment contract has been processed by POEA


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Concepts & Definitions Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Undocumented OFW - a migrant worker with insufficient employment documents, whose employment contract has not been processed by POEA

  • Name-Hire - an OFW who was able to secure an overseas employment without the assistance or participation of any recruitment agency


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Concepts & Definitions Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Worker on-Leave - an OFW who is on vacation and is returning to the same employer (Balik Manggagawa)

  • Seafarer - Any person who is employed or engaged in any capacity on board a seagoing ship navigating the foreign seas other than a government ship used for military or non-commercial purposese.g. fishermen, cruise ship personnel and those serving on foreign maritime mobile offshore and drilling units.


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National Statistics Office Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

What is the NSO Survey on Overseas Filipinos (SOF)?

  • It is undertaken every year as rider to the October round of the Labor Force Survey (LFS)

  • A nationwide survey that gathers information on Filipino citizens who left for abroad during the last five years

2


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Objectives of the SOF Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

National Statistics Office

  • Obtain national estimates on the number of overseas Filipinos

  • Provide estimates on the amount of cash received by the families

3


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Landbased Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

Seabased

National Statistics Office

Who are the Overseas Workers?

  • Filipinos who are presently and temporarily working overseas during the 5-year reference period.

  • They may or may not have an existing work contract abroad.

4


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OFWs in April to September 2004 reach 1.18 million... Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

2004

1.18M

2003

0.98 M

National Statistics Office

20.2%

6


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OFWs in April to September 2004 reach 1.18 million... Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

1.18M

2004

2003

0.98M

National Statistics Office

17.7%

OCW =1.10M

OCW =0.93M

7


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Asia Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

76.4 %

Australia

1.9 %

Europe

10.7 %

N & S America

9.2 %

Africa

Other Countries

1.3 %

0.5 %

Japan

115 Thousand

Saudi Arabia 258 Thousand

National Statistics Office

Majority of OFWs were in Asia...

11


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PhP Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)8.9 B

2004

2003

National Statistics Office

Remittances from April to September 2004 amounted to 79.3 billion pesos…

PhP 79.3 Billion

PhP 70.4 Billion

13


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71.9 Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) %

22.7 %

2.9 %

1.8 %

0.7 %

Banks

Door to Door

Agency

Friends/

Co-Workers

Others

National Statistics Office

Seven out of ten OFWs used banks in sending their cash remittances…

14


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Europe Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

Total = PhP 8.4B

Ave = PhP 81,000

N&S America

Total = PhP 7.2B

Ave = PhP 80,800

Asia

Total = PhP 37.4B

Ave = PhP 52,000

National Statistics Office

More than 66 percent of the cash remittances came from OFWs in Asia…

15


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Current Initiatives in the PSS Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • IAC on Shared Government Information System for Migration (IACSGISM)

    • Objectives/Plan: (1) Make available among all concerned information contained in existing databases; (2) Linking of databases for free-flow of data exchanges and sharing

      Lead: Department of Foreign Affairs assisted by the CFO

      Issues:

      Lack of funds in implementing an integrated system

      Convened last in 2002, but hold small group meetings with CFO


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Initiatives in the PSS Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Central Bank’s IAC on Overseas Employment and Tourism Statistics

    • Aimed at rationalizing data collection and harmonize measurement methodologies concerning Overseas Filipino Workers’ (OFW) incomes and international travel variables

    • Initial outputs:

      • Assessment of current practices and methodologies

      • Average salaries of OFWs

      • Common methodology in estimating economic contribution of OFWs


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Most Current Initiatives Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • NSCB Task Force on Overseas Filipino Statistics’ Terms of Reference

    • Review and evaluate the data generation activities of all concerned agencies for monitoring the stock and flow of overseas Filipinos

    • Review concepts and definitions

    • Formulate recommendations on appropriate concepts and definitions and the estimation and utilization of data on the stock and flow of overseas Filipinos


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Outputs Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Assessment of existing data generation systems including issues and concerns of the various agencies

  • Proposed Operational Framework which situate the Overseas Filipino Workers(OFWs) among the Overseas Filipinos (OF), and OFs classified into:

    • Permanent

    • Temporary

      Proposed Standard Concepts and Definitions


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Framework Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Permanent Overseas Filipinos

  • Temporary Overseas Filipinos:

    • Documented OFWs

    • Visitors

    • Undocumented Filipinos

    • Others (Students and dependents of OFWs, etc.)


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Concept of Overseas Filipinos Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Are Filipino nationals abroad categorized as:

    • Migrant Workers

    • Permanent residents or immigrants

    • Former Filipino Citizens

    • Holders of non-immigrant visas like tourists/visitors, students, medical patients, those on official mission and others

    • Descendants of Filipino nationals overseas


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Permanent Overseas Filipinos Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Shall mean Filipinos who are permanent residents abroad, including Filipino immigrants who are already citizens or are still Filipino citizens awaiting naturalization, recognition or admission


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Temporary Overseas Filipinos Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Shall mean Filipinos whose stay overseas is employment related and are expected to return at the end of their work contracts (including their dependents), holders of non-immigrant visas like tourists/visitors, students, medical patients, those on official mission and others


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Future Directions Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)

  • Optimal utilization of the A/D card to enhance collection of data on departing/returning Filipinos

  • Revision of the A/D card to reflect information on length of stay and purpose of travel

  • Adoption of common definitions

  • Harmonization of reporting systems of DFA and CFO

  • Revisiting the design of the NSO Survey of Overseas Filipinos

  • Reactivating the IACSGISM


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  • Thank You! Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA)


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