Recent Development of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS
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Recent Development of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS TM ). J. Doyle, S. Chen, R. Hodur, T. Holt, M. Liu, K. Sashegyi, J. Schmidt, S. Wang, D. Westphal, J. Cummings, X. Hong, and J. Pullen Naval Research Laboratory Introduction Recent Development

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Recent Development of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS TM )

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Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Recent Development of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPSTM)

  • J. Doyle, S. Chen, R. Hodur, T. Holt, M. Liu, K. Sashegyi, J. Schmidt, S. Wang, D. Westphal, J. Cummings, X. Hong, and J. Pullen

  • Naval Research Laboratory

  • Introduction

  • Recent Development

    • Atmospheric model

    • Ocean model

  • Future Plans


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Navy Mesoscale Modeling Strategy Telescoping Systems Strategy for Mission Success

  • NOGAPS: (Fleet Numerical)

  • Global coverage

  • 1–10d forecaster guidance

  • COAMPS: (Fleet Numerical)

  • High resolution, nested regional coverage

  • 0-72h forecaster guidance

Observations

BC, IC

Local Model Output

  • DAMPS: (Regional Centers)

  • On-scene tactical-scale weather

  • 0-48h forecaster guidance

Data Fusion

AI

Nowcast

On-Scene Obs

  • COAMPS-OS: (Shipboard-NITES)

  • Battlegroup data assimilation system

  • 6-12h data assimilation cycle

On-Scene Obs

Battlespace Awareness Cube

  • Nowcast: (Shipboard-NITES)

  • Real-time, automatic, 4D data fusion

  • Warfighter time & space requirements

  • Common situational awareness

TDAs


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Navy Strategy

COAMPS: Flexibility in System Design

Single CM System: Open-MP / MPI

Shared or Distributed Memory Architectures

Ocean Data

Assimilation System

Atmospheric Data

Assimilation System


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS

Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System:

Atmospheric Components

  • Complex Data Quality Control

  • Analysis:

    • Multivariate Optimum Interpolation Analysis (MVOI) (Near Future: 3D Var)

  • Initialization:

    • Hydrostatic Constraint on Analysis Increments; Digital Filter

  • Atmospheric Model:

    • Numerics: Nonhydrostatic, Scheme C, Nested Grids, Sigma-z, Flexible Lateral BCs

    • Parameterizations: PBL, Convection, Explicit Moist Physics, Radiation, Sfc Layer

  • Features:

    • Globally Relocatable (5 Map Projections)

    • User-Defined Grid Resolutions, Dimensions, and Number of Nested Grids

    • 6 or 12 Hour Incremental Data Assimilation Cycle

    • Can be Used for Idealized or Real-Time Applications

    • Single Configuration Managed System for All Applications

    • Operational at FNMOC:

      • 9 Areas, Twice Daily, using 81/27/9 km or 81/27 km grids

      • Forecasts to 72 hours

    • Operational at all Navy Regional Centers (w/ GUI Interface)


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

NRL Background in Community Modeling

  • Began development of COAMPS in 1988

  • Began distribution to limited research community in 1995:

    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    • University of Oklahoma

    • North Carolina State University

    • Jackson State University

    • Desert Research Institute

    • U. S. Army Research Laboratory

  • Began operations in 1997:

    • FNMOC

    • Navy Regional Centers

  • COAMPS Process Action Team (PAT) recommended general release of COAMPS in 2000:

    • Release via Web; open to all

    • Support for release now funded

  • Naval Postgraduate School

  • San Diego Supercomputer Center

  • Oregon State University

  • NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory

  • Goddard Space Flight Center

  • Tulane University


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS Recent Development

  • Atmospheric Model

    • NAVDAS

    • Moist physics

    • Aerosols

    • Moving nests

    • Land surface processes

    • Upper Boundary Condition

  • Ocean Model

    • Analysis

    • Forecast

    • WAM


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

z

z

x

x

NAVDAS

Navy Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System

  • cast in observation space

  • vertical profiles are transformed into coefficients

  • of background error correlation eigenvectors (10-25 fold speedup)

  • non-separable error correlation functions providing scale-length

  • variations with height and location

  • correlation functions can be defined on isentropic surfaces

  • (along dry air flow)

  • error correlations have scale dependence

  • operates on all grids for NOGAPS and COAMPS

global

regional

  • uses Message Passing Interface for Massively Parallel Computers

  • directly assimilates measured quantities SSM/I wind speed, TOVS

  • radiances, SSM/I precipitable water


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Adjustments to COAMPS Bulk Microphysics

  • Original RH83 scheme lacked secondary ice nucleation, CCN, drizzle, aggregates, and liquid to ice conversions (homogeneous freezing, graupel and/or hail production)

  • Modified Adjustment to Saturation Scheme:

    Implicit solution for T,q (Soong and Ogura, 1974)

    Normalized microphysical rates

  • Modified ice nucleation (Meyers et al. 1992; Hallet and Mossop, 1974)

  • Allow nonzero fall speed for pristine ice

  • Implemented various autoconversion schemes

  • Implemented the RH84 graupel scheme and homogeneous freezing

  • Adapted the two-moment Khairoutdinov and Kogan (2000) drizzle

    parameterization (originally implemented by Dave Mechem, OU)

  • Modified the turbulence closure for mixed-phase clouds

  • Implemented a Hybrid time scheme

    (Clark 1979; Smolarkiewicz and Clark, 1986; Tripoli 1992;

    Wicker and Wilhelmson 1995)

  • Implemented a forward positive definite advection scheme (Bott, 1989)

  • Developing a full two-moment mixed-phase microphysics scheme

    (Reisner et al., 1998; Meyers et al., 1997; KK 2000 )

  • Coupling cloud microphysics with aerosol model(s)


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Original RH83 Scheme

RFC Analysis

Modified Scheme

Moist Physics Comparisons

Winter-time Precipitation (mm)

24 Hour COAMPS Grid 3

Forecast Valid 01/25/02


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS CONUS One-Week (20020125-20020201) Precipitation Scores


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Addition of Aerosol Microphysics to COAMPS

  • Objective: COAMPS with interactive clouds, radiation and aerosols

  • Goal: COAMPS predictions of dust storms as weather events for strategic, tactical,

  • surveillance, and operational uses

  • Approach:

    • Include source, dry deposition, and wet removal terms for dust (COAMPS already has accurate tracer transport code)

    • Use remote sensing to improve specification of dust source areas

    • Validate model forecasts of occurrence and intensity of dust events in Southwest Asia region for spring 2002


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Simulated Orographic Rainfall Structure

Rain water (g/kg)

21600 sec

Rain water (g/kg)

21600 sec

Aerosol Concentration / cm3

Aerosol Concentration / cm3

Marine Environment

Continental Environment

Aerosol Void

Aerosol Void


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Mt. Etna Ash Plume

COAMPS Transport Simulation

24-h forecast Valid 12 UTC 24 July 2001

Color: Mass Load (kg m-2)

SeaWiFS Satellite Image

24 July 2001


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS MPI Moving Nests

Hurricane Gordon 00Z September 17- 00Z September 19, 2000

Nest 2: 36 h forecast valid 12 UTC 18 September 2000

Sea level

pressure (hPa)

Fixed Nest Option

Moving Nest Option

10-m wind

speed (m/s)

(m/s)

0

4

8

12

16

20


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

J

E

A

F

I

B

C

G

H

R

Q

D

K

P

L

O

N

M

Proposed COAMPS Land Surface Model (LSM) System

  • DATABASES

  • Vegetation type (USGS 1-km global)

  • Soil texture (1-km USDA STATSGO; 1o GED)

Seasonal variation

(satellite-derived NDVI)

LSM

Meteorological model input

T,q, ps, u,v, precip.

LW, SW radiation

LSM processes

A = precipitation

B = condensation

C = on vegetation

D = on bare soil

E = transpiration

F = canopy water evaporation

G = direct soil evaporation

H = evaporation from open water

I = deposition/sublimation

to/from snow pack

J = turbulent heat flux to/from

snow pack/soil/plant canopy

K = soil heat flux

L = interflow

M = internal soil flux

N = gravitational flow

O = internal moisture flux

P = soil moisture flux

Q = runoff

R = dust processes

S = urban effects

S


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Urban Canopy Parameterization

  • Originally developed by Brown and Williams (1998), modified

  • by Chin et al. (2000)

(2) Turbulence

production

(1) Momentum

loss

(3) Radiation

absorption

  • Roof albedo (a) = 0.22

  • Roof emissivity (e) = 0.91

  • Roof heat capacity (Croof) =9.681 e4

  • Roof drag coefficient (CDroof) = 7.1e-3

  • Urban drag coefficient (Cd) = 1.2e-2

  • Extinction coefficient (k) = 0.1

  • Bowen ratio (Br) = 1.5

  • Canopy area density (a(z))= linear in z

(4) Surface energy budget

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS Upper Boundary Conditon

Linear Hydrostatic Gravity Wave Test

Analytic Solution

Rigid Lid (wtop=0)

w (105 m s-1)

w (105 m s-1)

Radiation Condition (Klemp&Durran)

MM5 Local Radiation Condition

w (105 m s-1)

w (105 m s-1)


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS

Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System:

Ocean Components

  • Data Quality Control

  • Analysis:

    • 2D MVOI of Sea Surface Temp on All Grids

    • 3D MVOI Analysis of Temperature, Salinity, Surface Height, Sea Ice, Currents

  • Ocean Model: Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM)

    • Numerics: Hydrostatic, Scheme C, Nested Grids, Hybrid Sigma/z

    • Parameterizations: Mellor-Yamada 2.5

  • Features:

    • Globally Relocatable (5 Map Projections)

    • User-Defined Grid Resolutions, Dimensions

    • Can be Used for Idealized or Real-Time Applications

    • Single Configuration Managed System for All Applications

    • Loosely coupled to COAMPS atmospheric model

  • Strategy for testing coupled system:

    • construct a Mesoscale Atm-Ocean Data Assimilation System for the Med. Sea

    • quantify the skill of system

    • examine the Adriatic Sea at high resolution as a test-bed for coupling strategies


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

NCOM Forecasts

Surface Velocity (cm/s)

5 Oct 1999

3 Oct 1999

1 Oct 1999

Sea Surface Temperature (C)

5 Oct 1999

3 Oct 1999

1 Oct 1999


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Coupled COAMPS/WAM Simulation of TC Bonnie

Significant Wave Height (m)

24-h Forecast Valid at 1200 UTC 24 August 1998

(Dx=6 km)

NASA

Scanning Radar Altimetry

Uncoupled

Coupled

12.8

10.9

Wright et al. (2000)


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Future Plans

  • Development and Implementation of:

    • 3D variational analysis (NAVDAS)

    • aerosol model

    • air-ocean coupled system

    • land-surface model (LSM) (NOAH)

    • improved microphysical parameterization

    • improved Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 BL Param.

    • incorporation of WRF KF scheme

    • LES Option

    • mesoscale verification

    • efficiency improvements


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Future Plans

  • COAMPS and WRF Comparisons:

    • Idealized Simulations

    • Real Data Simulations

  • Interchange of Key COAMPS/WRF Modules

  • Collaboration With WRF Community

    • Land Surface Model (NOAH)

    • Physical Parameterization & Numerical Techniques

    • Ocean/Atmosphere Coupling Methods

    • Tropical Cyclones

    • Efficiency/MPI Issues

    • Proposed Next Generation Micro-a Scale Model


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS FNMOC Operational Areas

As of:

February 25, 2002

27 km

27 km

Europe

W_Atl

81 km

81 km

27 km

W_Pac

81 km

27 km

E_Pac

81 km

9 km

27 km

27 km

Southwest_Asia

Conus

81 km

81 km

9 km

27 km

27 km

27 km

Cent_Am

81 km

Area 1

Arabian Sea

81 km

81 km


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

NAAPS/NOGAPS Simulates Large-scale Dust Storms

TOMS Aerosol Index

NAAPS Aerosol Optical Depth

red – sulfate

green – dust

blue - smoke

SeaWiFS True Color image

13 February, 2001


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Dust Storms: A Recurring, Worldwide ProblemMobilization and Transport Controlled by Mesoscale Dynamics

Korea, 31 March, 2001

Africa Coast, 21 April, 2001

Arabian Sea, 7 December, 1999

Mediterranean, 18 April, 2001

SeaWiFS images from Kuring/GSFC


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS MPI Moving Nest Software Development

  • Software developed using MPI

  • Makes use of existing COAMPS nesting software

  • Advantages:

    • Allows for smaller nests (less resources required)

    • Flexibility in movement of nests:

      • Namelist specified options:

        • Battle group option (“target” times/locations)

        • User specified grid point movement

      • Nests automatically move together

      • Automated tropical cyclone movement option (under development)

Recent Developments of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale

Prediction System (COAMPS), Ninth Conference on Mesoscale Processes


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

(1,n)

(1,n)

(1,n)

(m,n)

(m,n)

(m,n)

Shifted region

Interpolated

region

Time = t1

MPI communications

needed for shifted and

interpolated areas

Dropped region

(1,1)

(1,1)

(1,1)

(m,1)

(m,1)

(m,1)

COAMPS MPI Moving Nest Software Development

(1,n)

(1,n)

(1,n)

(m,n)

(m,n)

(m,n)

Fixed Nest 1:

(m x n) points

3 x 3 domain

decomposition

2 Halo Points

Moveable Nest 2:

Time = t0

(1,1)

(1,1)

(1,1)

(m,1)

(m,1)

(m,1)

Recent Developments of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale

Prediction System (COAMPS), Ninth Conference on Mesoscale Processes


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS CONUS Model Grid Setup

Pacific Northwest (PNW)

Mississippi River Basin (MRB)


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS CONUS 2001 Cold Season (20011113-20020430) Precipitation Scores


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS CONUS Regional One-Week (20020125-20020201) Precipitation Scores


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS CONUS One-Week (20020125-20020201) Precipitation Scores


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS Availability

  • Download COAMPS

  • http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/projects/coamps/index.html


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

NAVDAS: Nested COAMPS

Wind speed analysis

300 mb

12 km

36 km

  • Innovations (ob-bckgnd) computed using highest resolution COAMPS background available for each observation

  • Single merged analysis grid vectors formed by combination of all the nested grid points

  • Analysis corrections added back to each nested grid on vertical sigma_z model levels

  • Display on pressure levels

108 km


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Moving Nest Option

Fixed Nest Option

Nest 2 at tau = 48 h

48 h

Forecast position:

0-48 h (every 6 h)

0 h

27 km (46x46)

Nest 2 at tau = 0 h

27 km (121x85)

81 km (61x61)

81 km (61x61)

COAMPS MPI Moving Nests

Hurricane Gordon 00Z September 17- 00Z September 19, 2000

Moving Nest Option is 2.7x Faster on O2K


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS Dipole Jewel 5 Simulations

Impact of Increased Horizontal Resolution

10-m dosage (arbitrary units) and model terrain (m)

26-h forecast (valid 02 UTC 29 Oct)

Nest 3 (3 km)

Nest 4 (1 km)

Nest 2 (9 km)

log

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

Control Simulations


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPSTM Urban 2000 Simulations

Urban

Control

Obs

Salt Lake City Nest 4 1-km resolution (49 x 49 km): 12-h fcsts

20

4

10-m air temp

10-m wind speed

bias = 0.865, 0.099

rms = 1.712, 1.391

bias = 0.103, 0.966

rms = 0.394, 1.197

3

15

BG

2

10

1

5

Urban too warm at night

0

20

5

Reduction and improvement

in day and nighttime winds

bias =-0.292, 0.309

rms = 0.856, 0.991

bias = 0.470, -0.441

rms = 2.972, 2.849

15

RW

3

m/s

deg C

10

2

1

5

Little daytime difference

0

5

4

15

SLC

3

10

2

1

5

0

12

00

12

00

12

UTC

12

00

12

00

12

UTC

16 Oct

17 Oct

18 Oct

16 Oct

17 Oct

18 Oct


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

Coupled COAMPS/WAM

Two-Way Coupling

- Important in Boundary Layer(Janssen et al. 1989)

- Improved Model Climate(Viterbo and Janssen 1996)

- Extratropical Cyclones(Doyle 1995; Lalbebarry et al. 2000; Lionello et al. 1998)

- ECMWF/WAM Coupled System (Janssen et al. 2001)

WAM (Cycle 4) (WAMDI Group 1988)

Wave Spectrum Predicted From Energy Balance Equation

F(w,q): 2d Wave Variance Spectrum

Coupling Methodology(Janssen 1989; Janssen 1991)

COAMPS (zo, Fluxes, e, Kh, m, t, U10) WAM (a)

zo=aU*2/g, where a=b(1-tw/t)-0.5


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS Atmospheric Forcing

Surface Wind Stress (dynes/cm2)

5 Oct 1999

1 Oct 1999

3 Oct 1999

Surface Heat Flux (W/m2)

1 Oct 1999

3 Oct 1999

5 Oct 1999


Recent development of the coupled ocean atmosphere mesoscale prediction system coamps tm

COAMPS Dipole Jewel 5 Simulations

Nest4: Transport

Observed:

Cloud Track to T+105 min.

1-km Land-use Simulation

DTRA

Asterisks every 5 min from

2145-2330 UTC 28 Oct 98

24-h forecast valid

0000 UTC 29 Oct 98


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