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Advanced Biology. Heart. Size, Shape, Location. Fist Hollow, cone shaped Mediastinum, Rests on diaphragm, posterior to sternum, Lungs on each side. Size, Shape, Location. 2/3 lie to left of midsternal line Points toward right shoulder and left hip (apex, PMI).

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Advanced Biology

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Advanced biology

Advanced Biology

Heart


Size shape location

Size, Shape, Location

  • Fist

  • Hollow, cone shaped

  • Mediastinum, Rests on diaphragm, posterior to sternum, Lungs on each side


Size shape location1

Size, Shape, Location

  • 2/3 lie to left of midsternal line

  • Points toward right shoulder and left hip (apex, PMI)


Structure function 4 chambers

Structure/Function 4 Chambers

  • 2 Superior Atria

  • 2 Inferior Ventricles

  • Divided by interatrial/interventricular septum


Structure function 4 chambers1

Structure/Function 4 Chambers

  • Most Mass in Right and Left Ventricles; pumping chambers

  • Right= Forms most of the anterior surface

  • Left= Forms inferoposterior aspect. Much more muscular!


Structure function 4 chambers2

Structure/Function 4 Chambers

  • Posterior Atrial walls are smooth

  • Anterior Atrial walls are rigid with bundles of muscle tissue

  • Atria are the Receiving chambers; thin walled


Pathway of blood

Pathway of Blood

  • Blood Flow through chambers

  • Right Atrium – Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Coronary Sinus

  • Left Atrium – 4 Pulmonary veins pump blood back


Pathway of blood1

Pathway of Blood

  • Right Ventricle – pumps blood to pulmonary trunk (goes to lungs)

  • Left Ventricle – pumps blood to Aorta, then out to body


Pathway of blood2

Pathway of Blood

  • Valves – Atrioventricular (AV)

  • Right – Tricuspid

  • Left – Bicuspid

  • Semilunar valves in pulmonary trunk/aorta


Pathway of blood3

Pathway of Blood

  • Pulmonary Circuit – Pulmonary veins have blood with oxygen

  • Pulmonary arteries have blood without oxygen


Pathway of blood4

Pathway of Blood

  • Systemic Circuit – Arteries have blood with oxygen

  • Veins have blood without oxygen

  • See page 662


Major branches

Major Branches

  • Coronary Circulation – supply blood to the heart

  • Left Coronary – runs to left side and divides into two parts


Major branches1

Major Branches

  • Anterior Interventricular artery

  • Supplies blood to interventricular septum and anterior walls of ventricles


Major branches2

Major Branches

  • Circumflex artery

  • Supplies blood to the left atrium and posterior wall of left ventricle


Major branches3

Major Branches

  • Right Coronary – Runs to the right and also divides into two parts


Major branches4

Major Branches

  • Marginal Artery – lateral part of right side of heart (atrium)

  • Posterior interventricular artery – Runs to the apex, supplies posterior ventricle walls


Major branches5

Major Branches

  • Cardiac Veins – 1 major, 3 minor that dump into

  • Coronary Sinus – empties blood into the right atrium.

  • Located on Posterior side


Major branches6

Major Branches

  • Great Cardiac Vein – Found in the anterior interventricular sulcus (groove)

  • Middle Cardiac Vein – In posterior interventricular sulcus


Major branches7

Major Branches

  • Small Cardiac Vein – runs along heart’s right inferior margin

  • Several other anterior cardiac veins empty directly into Right Atrium


Problems

Problems?

  • Myocardial Infarction (MI) – Heart Attack.

  • Blockage to coronary arteries reduces blood flow

  • Damage to the Left Ventricle is the most serious


Conduction system

Conduction System

  • Intrinsic Cardiac Conduction System – Non-contractile cells that initiate and distribute impulses


Conduction system1

Conduction System

  • Sinoatrial Node (SA) – In right atria

  • Heart’s Natural Pacemaker

  • Atrioventricular Node (AV) – In interatrial septum above tricuspid valve


Conduction system2

Conduction System

  • Atrioventricular Bundle (bundle of His) – electrical connection between atria and ventricle

  • Bundle Branches – Run down interventricular septum to apex


Conduction system3

Conduction System

  • Purkinje Fibers – penetrate apex, run superiorly up ventricle walls

  • Like milking a cow


Advanced biology

ECG

  • Electrocardiograph

  • Waves include

  • P – SA node sends first impulse


Advanced biology

ECG

  • QRS – Ventricular depolarization

  • Precedes ventricular contraction

  • T – Ventricular Repolarization


Advanced biology

ECG

  • Intervals

  • P-R (P-Q) – Beginning of atrial excitation and ventricular contraction

  • Q-T – Action potential through Heart


Cardiac cycle

Cardiac Cycle

  • Systole – Contraction of ventricles or atria

  • Diastole – Relaxation of ventricles or atria


Cardiac cycle1

Cardiac Cycle

  • Systolic Pressure – Ventricular contraction 120mmHg

  • Diastolic Pressure – Ventricular refilling 80mmHg

  • Hypertension – High BP

  • Hypotension – Low BP


Heart sounds

Heart Sounds

  • Lub-dup

  • Lub – AV valves close (systole)

  • Dup – SL valves close (diastole)


Heart sounds1

Heart Sounds

  • Murmurs – obstructions in BV

  • Thin walled vibrations


Cardiac output

Cardiac Output

  • CO = amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute

  • CO = HR x SV (stroke volume)

  • SV = Volume of blood pumped out by ventricle (Force of contraction)


Cardiac output1

Cardiac Output

  • CO = 75 bpm x 70mLpb

  • CO = 5250 mL/min


Developmental aspects

Developmental Aspects

  • Heart pumps by 23rd day

  • 1-2 days later, chambers start to form

  • Chambers are:


Developmental aspects1

Developmental Aspects

  • Sinus venosus – receives all venous blood, becomes Rt. Atrium & Coronary Sinus, SA node

  • Atrium – becomes muscle ridged parts of atrium


Developmental aspects2

Developmental Aspects

  • Ventricle – Becomes left ventricle

  • Bulbus cordis – Gives rise to the pulmonary trunk, first part of the aorta, most of the right ventricle


Age related changes

Age Related Changes

  • Sclerosis – Thickening of valve flaps

  • Decline in Cardiac Reserve – Heart is less able to adjust to changes


Age related changes1

Age Related Changes

  • Fibrosis of cardiac muscle – Scarred nodes, increase in arrhythmias

  • Atherosclerosis – acclerated by inactivity, smoking, stress. CV disease


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