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Histology of Respiratory Tract. Dr. Sama ul Haque Dr . Safaa. Objectives. Differentiate between the olfactory and nasal mucosa. Discuss the microscopic structure of larynx. Describe the microscopic structure of trachea and lungs.

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Histology of respiratory tract

Histology of Respiratory Tract

Dr. SamaulHaque

Dr. Safaa


Objectives
Objectives

  • Differentiate between the olfactory and nasal mucosa.

  • Discuss the microscopic structure of larynx.

  • Describe the microscopic structure of trachea and lungs.

  • Differentiate between the terminal and respiratory bronchioles.

  • Explain alveolar cells.


Respiratory system
Respiratory System

  • This consists of the lungs and the air passages that lead to and form the lungs.

  • The air passages branch as they enter the lungs to finally form alveoli.

  • This system has 3 functions:

    1.Air conduction; 2.Air filtration; 3.Gas exchange (respiration).


Air passages consist of:

  • A conducting portion

  • A respiratory portion

  • 1.Nasal cavities; 2.Nasopharynx and oropharynx; 3.Larynx; 4.Trachea; 5.Paired primary bronchi.

    Bronchi within the lungs branch extensively to form bronchioles. The terminal bronchioles form the last part of the conducting system.



Respiratory epithelium
Respiratory Epithelium gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

  • The typical respiratory epithelium consists of

    5 cell types:

    1.Ciliated cells; 2.Goblet cells; 3.Brush cells (have short blunt microvilli); 4.Small granule cells (contain secretory granules); 5.Basal cells (stem cells).


Nasal cavity
Nasal Cavity gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

  • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

  • Non Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

  • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

  • Olfactory Epithelium


Nasal cavity1
Nasal Cavity gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

  • Nasal Cavity formed of:

  • 1.Vestibule. 2.Respiratory segment. 3.Olfactory segment

  • Vestibule:

    Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

    Non Keratinized stratified squamous

    Contains vibrissae (fine hair), sebaceous glands and sweat glands


Nasal cavity2
Nasal Cavity gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

  • Resp to olfepith transition zone-str column epth with cilia and goblet cells to str column epit. Without cilia and with olf cells…

  • Respiratory segment

    - Respiratory Epithelium

    - Lamina Propria

  • Olfactory segment

    - Olfactory Epithelium:

    i. Olfactory cells (bipolar neurons)

    ii. Basal cells

    iii. Supportive cells

    - Lamina Propria


Nasal Cavity gaseous exchange takes place and includes:


Lamina Propria gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

  • Mucous Glands

  • Serous Glands

  • Venous Sinuses

  • Mucoperiosteum or Mucoperichondrium

  • Secretions of nasal mucosa

    - Bactericides

    - Lysozymes


Olfactory epithelium
Olfactory Epithelium gaseous exchange takes place and includes:


Nasopharynx
Nasopharynx gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

Mucosa

  • Respiratory Epithelium

  • Stratified Squamous Epithelium

    Lamina Propria

  • Elastic Tissue

  • Mucus Gland


Larynx
Larynx gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

  • Mucosa

    False vocal cords: Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

    True vocal cords: Non Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

  • Intrinsic Muscles

  • Cartilages

    - Larger Laryngeal Cartilages (Hyaline)


Larynx gaseous exchange takes place and includes:


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