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Histology of Respiratory Tract. Dr. Sama ul Haque Dr . Safaa. Objectives. Differentiate between the olfactory and nasal mucosa. Discuss the microscopic structure of larynx. Describe the microscopic structure of trachea and lungs.

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histology of respiratory tract

Histology of Respiratory Tract

Dr. SamaulHaque

Dr. Safaa

objectives
Objectives
  • Differentiate between the olfactory and nasal mucosa.
  • Discuss the microscopic structure of larynx.
  • Describe the microscopic structure of trachea and lungs.
  • Differentiate between the terminal and respiratory bronchioles.
  • Explain alveolar cells.
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • This consists of the lungs and the air passages that lead to and form the lungs.
  • The air passages branch as they enter the lungs to finally form alveoli.
  • This system has 3 functions:

1.Air conduction; 2.Air filtration; 3.Gas exchange (respiration).

slide4

Air passages consist of:

  • A conducting portion
  • A respiratory portion
  • 1.Nasal cavities; 2.Nasopharynx and oropharynx; 3.Larynx; 4.Trachea; 5.Paired primary bronchi.

Bronchi within the lungs branch extensively to form bronchioles. The terminal bronchioles form the last part of the conducting system.

slide5

The respiratory portion is the part of the tract where gaseous exchange takes place and includes:

1.Respiratory bronchioles; 2.Alveolar ducts; 3.Alveolar sacs; 4.Alveoli.

respiratory epithelium
Respiratory Epithelium
  • The typical respiratory epithelium consists of

5 cell types:

1.Ciliated cells; 2.Goblet cells; 3.Brush cells (have short blunt microvilli); 4.Small granule cells (contain secretory granules); 5.Basal cells (stem cells).

nasal cavity
Nasal Cavity
  • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  • Non Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
  • Olfactory Epithelium
nasal cavity1
Nasal Cavity
  • Nasal Cavity formed of:
  • 1.Vestibule. 2.Respiratory segment. 3.Olfactory segment
  • Vestibule:

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Non Keratinized stratified squamous

Contains vibrissae (fine hair), sebaceous glands and sweat glands

nasal cavity2
Nasal Cavity
  • Resp to olfepith transition zone-str column epth with cilia and goblet cells to str column epit. Without cilia and with olf cells…
  • Respiratory segment

- Respiratory Epithelium

- Lamina Propria

  • Olfactory segment

- Olfactory Epithelium:

i. Olfactory cells (bipolar neurons)

ii. Basal cells

iii. Supportive cells

- Lamina Propria

slide12

Lamina Propria

  • Mucous Glands
  • Serous Glands
  • Venous Sinuses
  • Mucoperiosteum or Mucoperichondrium
  • Secretions of nasal mucosa

- Bactericides

- Lysozymes

nasopharynx
Nasopharynx

Mucosa

  • Respiratory Epithelium
  • Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Lamina Propria

  • Elastic Tissue
  • Mucus Gland
larynx
Larynx
  • Mucosa

False vocal cords: Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

True vocal cords: Non Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

  • Intrinsic Muscles
  • Cartilages

- Larger Laryngeal Cartilages (Hyaline)

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