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Lecture 7 Marketing Communication Psychology. Dr. Lucy Ting [email protected] Agenda. Hierarchy of Effect Models Concept and Advantages Theories Criticisms Attitude Formation and Change Theory of Planned Behaviour Problems with the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

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  • Hierarchy of Effect Models
    • Concept and Advantages
    • Theories
    • Criticisms
  • Attitude Formation and Change
    • Theory of Planned Behaviour
    • Problems with the Theory of Planned Behaviour
hierarchy of effects1




Hierarchy of Effects
  • Consumers are assumed to go through the specific stages in a well-defined sequence
  • Think-Feel-Do
  • Advantages
    • The recognition of brand awareness
    • A basic framework for future communication process theories

Pelsmacker et al. (2007) & Barry (2002) “In Defense of the Hierarchy of Effects: A rejoinder to Weilbacher,” Journal of Advertising Research, 42(3), pp. 44-47

hierarchy of effects models
Hierarchy-of-Effects Models

Barry, T.E. and Howard, D.J. (1990), ‘A Review and Critique of the Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising’, International Journal of Advertising, 9(2), pp. 121–35

hierarchy of effects model





Hierarchy of Effects Model
  • AIDA
hierarchy of effects model1





Hierarchy of Effects Model
hierarchy of effects model2







Hierarchy of Effects Model
  • Lavidge


the fcb grid
The FCB Grid
  • Foot-Cone-Belding Grid

Vaughn, R. (1980), ‘How Advertising Works: A Planning Model’, Journal of Advertising Research, 20(5), pp. 27–33.

still but
Still But….
  • No empirical evidence
  • No interactions between different stages
  • Lack of an accurate description of the effects of advertising
  • Lack of an accurate conceptualization of how advertising works
  • Lack of an measurement the true effects of advertising.

Pelsmacker et al. (2007) & Weilbacher (2001) “Point of View: Does Advertising Cause a "Hierarchy of Effects"? Journal of Advertising Research, 41(6), pp. 19-26

mao model
MAO Model

Involvement is part of MAO

  • Motivation
    • Consumer needs and goals: functional, symbolic, hedonic, approach, avoidance
    • Consumer involvement
  • Ability
    • Understanding the verbal and visual message cues
    • Being able to buy the product
  • Opportunity
    • Availability of product
    • (lack of) noise during exposure to message.
attitude formation and change1
Attitude Formation and Change

Pelsmacker et al. (2007)

theory of planned behaviour
Theory of Planned Behaviour

Ajzen (1991), “The Theory of Planned Behaviour,” Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), pp. 179-211

  • Attitude is made of three elements

Attitude towards object o

Belief of object o possessing attribute i

Evaluation of attribute i

Number of relevant attributes

subjective norm
Subjective Norm
  • Subjective Norm is the perceived social pressure to engage or not to engage in a behaviour

Social sensitivity of attribute i

Others’ opinion of attribute i

subjective norm1
Subjective Norm
  • Perceived behavioural control has to do with the perceived presence of factors that may facilitate or impede performance of a behaviour

Control belief of attribute i

Perceived power of attribute i

Change Brand Belief
    • E.g. Manchester is a sociable city
  • Change Attribute Evaluations
    • E.g. Manchester has longer history and more famous alumni
  • Add Attribute
    • E.g. Manchester has 3+1 options
Changing the opinion of others
    • Smoking is not pretty
  • Raising or lowering social sensitivity
    • Think for your loved ones
Change control beliefs
    • Never a better time to clear out your wardrobe
  • Change perceived power
    • Just do it!
theory of planned behaviour1
Theory of Planned Behaviour
  • Advantages
    • Extensive empirical supports
    • Give specific measurements of effects
  • Disadvantages
    • Other elements, e.g. ethics and religion
    • Little empirical supports for Subjective Norm and Behaviour Intention to Behaviour
    • Levels of Behaviour Intention unclear

e.g. Conner and Armitage (1998), “Extending The Theory of Planned Behaviour: A Review and Avenue for Future Research,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), pp. 1429-1464; Armitage and Conner (2001), “Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A meta-analytic review,” British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4) pp. 471-499