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Lecture 6 Marketing Communication. Dr. Lucy Ting Lucy.Ting@manchester.ac.uk. Agenda. Marketing Communications Consumer Perspective Integrated Marketing Communications Definitions Characteristics Levels of Integration Drivers and Barriers Communication Mix Tools Mass Market Appeal

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Lecture 6 Marketing Communication

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Lecture 6MarketingCommunication

Dr. Lucy Ting

Lucy.Ting@manchester.ac.uk


Agenda

  • Marketing Communications

    • Consumer Perspective

  • Integrated Marketing Communications

    • Definitions

    • Characteristics

    • Levels of Integration

  • Drivers and Barriers

  • Communication Mix Tools

    • Mass Market Appeal

    • Personal Appeal

    • Buzz Appeal


Marketing Mix

McCarthy, E.J. (1960), Basic Marketing, Homewood, IL, Irwin


Marketing Communications (MarCom)

  • Advertising

  • Sales promotions

  • Sponsorship

  • Public relations

  • Point-of-purchase communications

  • Exhibitions and trade fairs

  • Direct marketing communications

  • Personal selling

  • E-communications


Customer Perspective

  • Consumers may be more sensitive to commonalities and discrepancies among message than to the specific MarComs used to transmit them

  • Added value is created in terms of a faster and better comprehension of the communication and integration occurs at the consumer or perceiver level.

Englis and Solomon (1996), ‘Using Consumption Constellations to Develop Integrated Communiication Strategies’, Journal of Business Research, 37, 183-191


Marketing Communication

  • Factors influence Marketing Communications

    • Changing Consumers

      • The availability of information and increased resistance in mass-market broadcasting

    • Changing Marketing Strategies

      • Fragmented market and more personalised marketing strategies

    • Changes in Technology

      • e.g. Internet, Mobile, Ipod, Satellite & Cable

Armstrong and Kotler (2009) Chpt 12


IMC: Mix and Match

  • Integrated Marketing Communication

    • A planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organisation are relevant to that person and consistent over time

American Marketing Association


IMC: Mix and Match

  • Basic Concepts

    • The whole is greater than the sum.

    • Affects brand awareness, by which it creates, maintains, or strengthens favourable and unique brand associations.

    • Aims to build strong customer relationships


Communication Mix Tools


Creating Synergies

  • Sales team has easier job when brand is well-known through advertising or sponsorship.

  • A promotional campaign that is supported by advertising is more successful.

  • Public relations, sponsorship and advertising can have synergetic effects on company and brand image.

  • Websites have to be supported by off-line campaigns.


Marketing Mix and IMC

Hutton, J.H. (1996), ‘Integrated Marketing Communication and the Evolution of Marketing Thought’, Journal of Business Research, 37, 155–62


Integrated Marketing Communications


Definitions

Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)

  • IMC is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognises the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines and combine these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communications impact

American Association of Advertising Agencies; Reported in Schultz (1993) “Integrated Marketing Communications: Maybe Definition is in the Point of View,” Marketing News, 18 January


Definitions

  • IMC is the strategic choice of elements of marketing communications which will effectively and economically influence transactions between an organisation and its existing and potential customers, clients and consumers.

Betts et al. (1995), Marketing Communications Strategy, 2nd Edition BPP Publishing


Definitions

  • IMC is the concept under which a company carefully integrates and coordinates its many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent and compelling message about the organisation and its products

Kotler et al. (1999), Principles of Marketing 2nd European Edition, Prentice Hall


Definitions

  • IMC is an organisation’s unified, coordinated effort to promote a brand concept through the use of multiple communications tools that “speak with a single voice.”

Shimp (2000), Advertising, Promotion, and Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, 5th Edition, Dryden Press


Definitions

  • IMC is a process of managing the customer relationships that drive brand value. More specifically, it is a cross-functional process for creating and nourishing profitable relationships with customers and stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all messages sent to these groups and encouraging data-driven, purposeful dialogue with them

Duncan (2002), IMC: Using Advertising and Promotion to Build Brands, International Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies


Definitions

Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)

  • A planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time

American Marketing Association


Characteristics

  • Five Essential Elements of IMC

    • The aim to affect behaviour through direct communication

    • The IMC process should start from customer or prospects and then work backwards to brand communicators

    • IMC should use all forms of communication and all sources of brand or company contacts as prospective message delivery channels

    • The need for synergy, with coordination helping to achieve a strong brand image

    • The need to build and strength brand relationships

Shimp (2000), Advertising, Promotion, and Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, 5th Edition, Dryden Press


Levels of Integration

Duncan and Caywood (1996), “The Concept, Process and Evolution of Integrated Marketing Communication,” in Thorson and Moore (eds) Integrated Communication: Synergy of Pervasive Voices, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 13-34


Levels of Integration

Schultz and Kitchen (2000), Communicating Globally: An Integrated Marketing Approach, Palgrave-Macmillan


Key Drivers of Integration

De Pelsmaker and den Bergh (2007)


Barriers of Integration

De Pelsmaker and den Bergh (2007)


Communication Tools


Retailersand Wholesalers

Producer

Customers

Communication Mix Strategies

  • Two basic strategies

    • Push Strategy

      • Pushing the product through marketing channels to final consumers

      • Personal selling and trade promotion are relatively emphasised

Marketing Activities

Marketing Activities


Communication Mix Strategies

  • Two basic strategies

    • Pull Strategy

      • Producer direct its marketing activities directly to consumers to induce their demand for the product

      • Advertising and promotion are relatively emphasised

Marketing Activities

Retailersand Wholesalers

Producer

Customers


Communication Tools

  • Mass Appeal

    • Tools which aim to reach many prospective customers at the same time

    • Advertising

    • Sales Promotion

    • Public Relations

Solomon et al. (2008)


Communication Tools

  • Advertising

    • It can offers reasons to buy and reach masses of geographically dispersed buyers with repeated exposures.


Communication Tool

  • Advertising Objectives

    • Informative Advertising

      • To communicate customer value and is used heavily when introducing a new product

    • Persuasive Advertising

      • To build brand value and sometimes compare with competing brands

    • Reminder Advertising

      • Maintain customer relationships and keep customers thinking about the product


Communication Tool

  • Advertising Media


Communication Tool

  • Advertising Media


Communication Tool

  • Advertising Media


Communication Tools

2. Sales Promotion

  • It consists of short-term incentives to encourage purchase or sales of a product or service


Communication Tool

  • Sales Promotion Objectives

    • Consumer Promotion

      • Short-term customer buying

      • Temporary brand switching

      • Reinforce positioning strategy

      • Build long-term customer relationship

    • Trade Promotion

      • More sales force support for products

      • Getting salespeople to sign up new accounts


Communication Tools

3. Public Relations

  • To build good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favourable publicity, building up a good corporate image, and handling unfavourable rumours.


Communication Tools

  • Personal Appeal

    • Tools which aim to communicate with consumers on a personal, one-to-one level.

    • Personal Selling

    • Direct Marketing

Solomon et al. (2008)


Communication Tools

  • Personal Selling

    • Personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships


Communication Tools

  • Direct Marketing

    • Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain and immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships


Communication Tools

  • Buzz Appeal

    • The new out-of-box tools which aim to communicate especially with the young consumers who tend to be cynical about corporations.

    • Direct Marketing (Digital)

Solomon et al. (2008)


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