Used fuel projections and considerations
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Used Fuel Projections and Considerations. John Kessler Manager, Used Fuel and HLW Management Program, [email protected] Nuclear Infrastructure Council Sustainable Fuel Cycle Meeting 9 June 2010. Outline. Why we got to where we are Utility issues related to wet and dry storage

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Used fuel projections and considerations

Used Fuel Projections and Considerations

John KesslerManager, Used Fuel and HLW Management Program, [email protected]

Nuclear Infrastructure Council Sustainable Fuel Cycle Meeting9 June 2010


Outline

Outline

  • Why we got to where we are

  • Utility issues related to wet and dry storage

  • Commercial used fuel inventories: present and future projections

  • Extended storage R&D


Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle original plan before 1976

Back-end of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Original Plan (before ~ 1976)

Re-fabricate/Recycle

Nuclear Power Plant

Geologic Repository

Reprocessing Plant

Vitrified Waste


Key developments in the 70 s in the u s

Key Developments in the 70’s in the U.S.

  • Sharp increase in reprocessing costs

  • India’s nuclear bomb test

  • US decision to forego reprocessing and Pu recycle

Result: a “once-through” fuel cycle


The once through fuel cycle

The Once-through Fuel Cycle

Offsite Storage

Dry InterimStorage

10 CFR 71

Used Fuel

Transportation

10 CFR 72

10 CFR 60/63

10 CFR 50

Utility Licensees

U.S. DOE

?

Geologic Medium

Wet Storage


Current situation

Current Situation

  • No disposal

  • No reprocessing

  • No fast reactors

  • Spent fuel pools are filling up

  • No centralized interim storage

  • Transportation not available for all used fuel types

  • Therefore, nowhere for fuel to go


Industry reaction to the need for prolonged on site storage

Industry Reaction to the Need for Prolonged On-Site Storage

  • Add more storage cells in the spent fuel pools (“reracking”)

  • Move used fuel from pools into dry storage

  • Extract more energy per assembly (higher “burnups”)

  • Attempt to build a centralized interim storage site

  • Work on regulatory permission to transport high burnup used fuel

  • Extend the life of existing dry storage systems

  • After January 31, 1998: damages lawsuits against DOE for failure to start picking up used fuel

    • Money coming from DOJ Judgment Fund


Used fuel projections and considerations

Centralized Interim Storage Example (Private Fuel Storage Facility, Goshute Indian Reservation, State of Utah)

  • Developed by a utility consortium, 40,000 MTU capacity

  • 2005: NRC approval for construction, 40-year life

  • Artist’s conception of site below:

    A: rail line (52 km)B: cask transfer building

    C: concrete padsD: concrete cask production


Used fuel projections and considerations

Used Fuel Wet and Dry Storage Technology is Mature (Used Fuel Pool with Dry Storage Cask:Surry - Final TN-32 Loading)


On site spent fuel dry storage systems

On-Site Spent Fuel Dry Storage Systems


Dry storage casks at connecticut yankee

Dry Storage Casks at Connecticut Yankee


Surry isfsi pad 1

Surry ISFSI - Pad 1


Surry isfsi pad 2

Surry ISFSI - Pad 2


Surry isfsi pad 3

Surry ISFSI - Pad 3


Transportation systems

Transportation Systems


Industry trend from storage only to dual purpose canisters

Industry Trend from “Storage-Only” to “Dual Purpose Canisters”

Dual Purpose: storage and transportation (requires two separate licenses)

Multi-Purpose: storage, transportation, disposal (requires three licenses – none exist yet)


Historical and projected used fuel burnup megawatt days per metric ton of uranium mwd mtu

Historical and Projected Used Fuel “Burnup” (megawatt-days per metric ton of uranium, MWD/MTU)

“high” burnup

No transportation licenses

Burnup range from the 60s to the 80s


Inventory of used nuclear fuel is measured several different ways

Inventory of Used Nuclear Fuel is Measured Several Different Ways

  • Number of assemblies

    • More in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) than a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

  • Metric tons of uranium (MTU)

    • Similar MTUs in both BWRs and PWRs

  • Number of dry storage casks

    • Move to larger capacity casks (cheaper per assembly)

      • Dry storage: 7 (1980s) to >60 assemblies per cask today

    • Still transportable by rail


Used commercial fuel inventories as of 12 31 09

Used Commercial Fuel Inventories (as of 12/31/09)

  • National totals:

    • Wet storage: 169,696 assemblies at >50 reactor sites

    • Dry storage: 1,232 casks, 51,585 assemblies in 32 states

  • Top six states (casks/assemblies in dry storage)

    • Illinois

    • Pennsylvania

    • South Carolina

    • Virginia

    • Georgia

    • California

Data courtesy of ACI Nuclear Energy Solutions


Used fuel projections and considerations

By 2055: >485,000 assemblies (per ACI Nuclear Energy Solutions)


Used fuel projections and considerations

ISFSI: Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation


Potential additional used fuel in a renaissance

Potential Additional Used Fuel in a “Renaissance”

Current Yucca Mountain legal limit (63,000 MTU)


Yucca mountain technical capacity is much higher than the legal limit

Yucca Mountain Technical Capacity is Much Higher Than the Legal Limit

EPRI’s projected technical capacity range

(~260,000-570,000 MTU, 4 to 9 times current legal limit)

Current legal limit (63,000 MTU)


Newest storage project extended storage

Newest Storage Project: Extended Storage

  • “Extended”: >>60 years

  • Initial dry storage license periods: 20 years

    • Was supposed to be long enough

  • Existing EPRI work leads to licenses extended to 60 years

  • But:

    • Cancellation of Yucca Mountain?

      • New disposal program could take decades

    • New plants’ contracts with DOE: start taking spent fuel 20 years after plant shutdown

      • means 80 to 100+ years

  • Extended storage is not just a US problem


Functions of a dry cask storage system that must be maintained

Functions of a Dry Cask Storage System that Must be Maintained

  • NUREG-1536 (NRC, 1997) identifies the functions important to safety that the dry cask systems must maintain:

    • thermal performance

    • radiological protection

    • confinement

    • sub-criticality

    • retrievability

  • Can the existing and future dry cask systems maintain these functions for decades to come?


Temperature related dry storage system degradation mechanisms

Temperature-related Dry Storage System Degradation Mechanisms

  • Fuel cladding creep caused by increased cladding ductility and increased stress

    • Due to higher temperatures causing higher pressures inside the cladding

  • Hydride reorientation in the spent fuel cladding

  • Corrosion

  • Degradation of neutron shielding

  • Concrete dry-out and cracking


Changes as the system gets older and cooler

Changes as the System gets Older and Cooler

  • Mostly good things

    • Reduced metal creep rates

    • Reduced corrosion rates

    • Reduced gamma and neutron radiation

  • Potential negatives (mostly related to cladding)

    • Additional hydride precipitation

    • Decreased cladding ductility

      • Potentially more susceptible to breakage during storage and transportation


Aging management options

Aging Management Options

  • “Initial” activities

    • Additional analyses of degradation mechanisms for longer periods

    • Enhanced monitoring and inspection

  • “Eventually” (more costly, higher worker dose)

    • Canning

    • Repackaging

    • Over-packaging

  • When is “eventually”?


Epri initiated a joint effort in a november 2009 workshop

EPRI Initiated a Joint Effort in a November 2009 Workshop

  • Attendees:

    • EPRI

    • NRC: SFST, RES, NRR

    • DOE: NE, EM, RW

    • Utilities

    • Storage system vendors

    • NEI

    • NWTRB

  • Title: Extended Storage Collaboration Program

    • EPRI will be lead organization

    • US and international participation


Purpose of the program

Purpose of the Program

  • Evaluate what we already know

    • Existing analyses: how far out in time?

    • Existing data

    • Existing operational issues (e.g., loading, monitoring, testing)

  • Identify the open items for even longer storage (gap analysis)

  • Suggestions for what needs to be done (and how, if possible)

  • Form a standing group to continue pursuing additional, appropriate R&D


Conclusion industry will do what is necessary to keep plants running

Conclusion: Industry Will do What is Necessary to Keep Plants Running

  • Continue cranking out dry storage systems as a stop-gap measure

    • Industry has not (yet) been successful completing a centralized storage facility

    • Will get harder and harder to continue adding to the on-site storage inventory

      • Space, dose, public concern limitations

      • Shutdown plants: all that is left is the fuel

  • Ensure wet and dry storage systems maintain their safety functions

  • Without an active disposal program, it becomes more difficult to address the “what about the waste?” concern


Together shaping the future of electricity

Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity


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