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Silica Dust: You Are More At Risk Than You May Think. Gaynor Guthrie Medical Inspector. “It’s only dust you know!”. What is the Problem?. Why is it a Problem?. Particles need to be “respirable” to cause harm Issue is Respirable Crystalline Silica or RCS

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Gaynor Guthrie Medical Inspector

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Silica Dust:

You Are More At Risk Than You May Think

Gaynor Guthrie

Medical Inspector


“It’s only dust you know!”


What is the Problem?


Why is it a Problem?

  • Particles need to be “respirable” to cause harm

  • Issue is Respirable Crystalline Silica or RCS

  • RCS particles can penetrate to deep lung


Why is it a Problem?

  • A micron is one millionth of a meter.

  • Human hair varies between 40 to 100 m thick.

  • Respirable dust = 10 m or less


Silicosis

  • ?10 to 20% construction workers exposed

  • Silicosis usually follows at least 10 years of exposure to RCS

  • It causes stiffening and scarring of the lungs. Nodules visible on X-Ray

  • Symptoms are coughing and breathlessness

  • Progressive, even after exposure stops


Silicosis

Irreversible

  • Increased risk of Tuberculosis (TB)

  • After 15 years of exposure to RCS at the WEL of 0.1mg/m3, the risk of developing silicosis is 1 in 40

  • Silicosis is under-reported.


Normal chest X-Ray


Tuberculosis


Lung cancer

  • There is an association between silicosis and lung cancer

  • Over 500 silica related lung cancer deaths in construction in 2004 – Over 10 a week

  • Silica is the second most important cause of occupational lung cancer after asbestos


Lung cancer


Lung cancer

Second commonest cancer in men after prostate

Symptoms: cough (phlegm and blood), pain on breathing or coughing, shortness of breath, weight loss

Only 7% men survive 5 years after diagnosis


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • Persistent obstruction of airflow into lungs

  • Irreversible (unlike asthma)

  • Progressive

  • Main cause is smoking

  • Silica exposure associated with COPD

  • Construction workers 2 to 3 times risk

  • Symptoms: breathlessness, cough with phlegm


Health Surveillance

  • G404 Health surveillance for RCS

  • Use a health professional

  • Risk based

  • Symptom enquiry (COPD, TB)

  • Lung function test

  • Chest X-Ray


How Much is a Problem?

COSHH sets WEL for dust:

General Dust

  • 10 mg.m-3 (inhalable)

  • 4 mg.m-3 (respirable)

    Respirable Silica

  • 0.1 mg.m-3 (8-hour TWA)


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