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Chapter 10 Beliefs. Why to have religion?. Religions. Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks Provide comfort, a community, a moral code, traditions Give to the needy. Religions. The Golden Rule: to treat the others the way you want to be treated

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Religions
Religions

  • Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks

  • Provide comfort, a community, a moral code, traditions

  • Give to the needy


Religions1
Religions

  • The Golden Rule: to treat the others the way you want to be treated

  • Believe in a supreme power: monotheism, polytheism, spirits, ghosts, goddesses, nature






The catholic faith in jesus
The Catholic Faith in Jesus & Wales

  • Half of the world’s Christians

  • Infants are baptised shortly after birth

  • Coming-of-age ceremony at ages 13-15

  • Priests and bishop officiate

  • Christ’s teachings in the Bible’s New Testament


The catholic faith in jesus1
The Catholic Faith in Jesus & Wales

  • “Sign of the Cross”—the Holy Trinity

  • Father—God, Son—Jesus, Holy Spirit—presence of God

  • Eucharist—sacred ritual of Holy Communication — Lord’s Supper

  • Visual churches


The catholic faith in jesus2
The Catholic Faith in Jesus & Wales

  • To worship Jesus with all 5 of their senses

  • Music for the ears,

  • Incense for the nose,

  • Statues and art for the eyes,

  • Little old ladies reach out and touch something; the beads

  • To worship Jesus through the taste in communion


Protestant
Protestant & Wales

  • Each denomination (church group) worships differently

  • Some—confirmations at ages 13-15

  • Some baptise infants to wash away old sin

  • Roger Williams—Baptist Church, 1638


The protestant reformation
The Protestant Reformation & Wales

  • Nearly 16 centuries of unbroken Catholic domination of Christianity, the then wealthiest and most powerful institution on earth

  • 1302, a formal decree—no salvation outside the Roman Catholic Church

  • The Pope—ultimate truth and power, religious or political


Background serious problems
Background & WalesSerious problems

  • Turmoil within the Church

  • Moving from Rome to Avignon, France

  • New papal tower constructed—symbol of the enormous power of papacy

  • Fondness of richness and treasure—corruption of the papal core


Background serious problems1
Background & WalesSerious problems

  • People being disturbed

  • Violent war between France & England (over a century)

  • 1347, a massive outbreak of the black plague—25 million Europeans, 4 years


Background serious problems2
Background & WalesSerious problems

  • In Rome, a second Pope elected

  • 31 years of battle for control of the church

  • A third Pope—1409-1415

  • The situation eventually resolved


Background damage
Background & WalesDamage

  • Who to believe?

  • Arrogance & corruption instead of truth & goodness

  • Need of reform

  • Risks of “heresy”: being put on trial or burned at a stake, eg. Johaness Hus: Czechoslovakia


The reformer
The Reformer & Wales

  • Martin Luther: Germany

  • Strong religious and political belief

  • The discovery of Christopher Columbus

  • The mass production of books


The reformer1
The Reformer & Wales

  • October 31st, 1517, to post a list of 95 criticisms, protesting the sale of indulgences

  • An indulgence: a spiritual favor granted by the church to sinners

  • By making difficult spiritual sacrifices

  • Important source of income for the church


The reformer2
The Reformer & Wales

  • Faith in Bible alone

  • Refusal to yield to the Pope

  • 3 revolutionary books sold in Germany

  • January 3rd, 1521, banished from Church

  • Translation of the Bible into German


The reformer3
The Reformer & Wales

  • John Calvin: predestination (Switzerland)

  • A terrible example of the majesty of God

  • To work hard and be thrifty

  • Capitalism flourished

  • A special police force to maintain public morality

  • Burning heretics


The reformer4
The Reformer & Wales

  • Henry VIII: divorce (England)

  • The Pope’s refusal to grant him annulment

  • The enraged king—Act of Supremacy, supreme head of the Church of England

  • Six wives

  • The Roman Church’s control of land and demand of more money from Henry VIII

  • Dissolution of monasteries


The reformer5
The Reformer & Wales

  • After his death

  • The Common Prayer, Sacraments

  • 42 articles

  • Mary I

  • Elizabeth I


Orthodox
Orthodox & Wales

  • Orthos: "right“; doxa: "belief"

  • Different in the way of life and worship

  • Maintaining the correct form of worshiping God, passed on from the very beginnings of Christianity

  • Ancient Jewish translation into Greek called the Septuagint


Hinduism
Hinduism & Wales

  • It does not have

  • a single founder,

  • a specific theological system,

  • a single system of morality,

  • or a central religious organization. 


Hinduism1
Hinduism & Wales

  • It consists of "thousands of different religious groups that have evolved in India since 1500 BCE."

  • Henotheistic: a single deity, & other Gods and Goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that supreme God


Judaism
Judaism & Wales

  • 4000 years ago, Abraham (Iraq)

  • Abraham’s great-grandson: Yehuda, or Judah (Hebrew: priest)

  • Rabbi & cantor: coming of age ceremony

  • The Torah (the Hebrew scriptures) scrolls

  • The Exodus from Egypt


Judaism1
Judaism & Wales

  • Holidays

  • Rosh Hashana—Jewish New Year

  • Yom Kippur—Day of Atonement

  • Hanukkah—Festival of Lights


Judaism2
Judaism & Wales

  • Jewish Golden Rule:

  • “What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman.”

  • Torah, Shabbat, 3id


Islam
Islam & Wales

  • Prophets:

  • Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jesus, Muhammed (the final messenger of God)

  • Islam: submission to God

  • Muslims, Christians, Jews: same God

  • Islam & terrorism—Jihad


Islam1
Islam & Wales

  • Salaama: Arabic for peace

  • Qur’an—Koran (the exact word of God)

  • Various cultural practices

  • Women and the head scarf

  • Friday: the religious day

  • Praying 5 times a day, facing Mecca (Saudi Arabia)


Islam2
Islam & Wales

  • Coming of age:

  • Boys: 15, praying

  • Girls: 9, scarf and long sleeves?

  • Allah/God

  • Ramadan (fasting)

  • Imam (supreme leader, prayer leader)


The five pillars of islam
The Five Pillars of Islam & Wales

  • Shahadah: pledge of faith

  • Salah: daily prayers

  • Sawm: fasting

  • Zakah: giving

  • Hajj: pilgrimage (millions of Muslims)


Muslim golden rule
Muslim Golden Rule & Wales

  • “Love for others what you love for yourself and dislike for others what you dislike for yourself.”

  • Muhammed (Hadith)

  • Hadith, the report of the sayings, deeds and approvals of the Prophet Muhammad


Mosque
Mosque & Wales


Sikhism
Sikhism & Wales

  • An Indian religion combining Islamic and Hindu elements

  • Punjab, late 15th century, by Guru Nanak

  • Nanak: the first of the Ten Gurus, of whom Sikhs consider themselves disciples


Harmandir sahib the golden temple gurdwara gateway to the guru
Harmandir Sahib (The Golden Temple) & WalesGurdwara (Gateway to the Guru)


Sikhism1
Sikhism & Wales

  • One God for all people of all religions, full equality of all people, of men and women

  • Living a virtuous and truthful life

  • Condemnation of blind rituals such as fasting, visiting places of pilgrimage, superstitions, worship of the dead, idol worship etc.


Atheism
Atheism & Wales

  • An atheist believes there is no god or gods.

  • An Agnostic believes it cannot be known if a god or gods exist.

  • Moral code of behavior

  • Life’s meaning


Taoism

Taoism & Wales


Taoism1
Taoism & Wales

  • A more relaxed and natural way of finding happiness

  • 300BC

  • Tao: a silent, pure, all powerful force that existed before there is heaven or earth

  • Living in harmony with nature


Taoism2
Taoism & Wales

  • Secularisation: ornate shrines, brilliantly-colored statues, offering

  • Chinese folk gods

  • Public rituals

  • Immortality


Lao tzu
Lao Tzu & Wales

  • Contrastive unification mutually convertible

  • Good Fotune Lieth Within Bad, Bad Fortune Lurketh With Good.

  • A small country with a small population

  • Daodejing/Tao Te Ching—Classic of the Way and Its Power


Chuang tzu
Chuang Tzu & Wales

  • The all-in-one idea—Tao as the root and basis for all existence and transformation

  • Spiritual freedom—I’d rather be dragging my tail in the mud.

  • Zhuang Zi/Chuang Tzu (Nanhuajing)—

  • Neipian (Inner Chapters)

  • Waipian (Outer Chapters)

  • Zapian (Miscellaneous Chapters)


Http www theodora com wfb china people html
http://www.theodora.com/wfb/china_people.html & Wales

  • Fangxian Tao—Alchemy and Immortals

  • Huanglao Tao—Reigns of Wen and Jing (the Western Han Dynasty)

  • Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and Lao Zi

  • Wudoumi Tao (Zhengyi Tao orTianshi Tao) and Taiping Tao

  • Five Decaliter of Rice Sect & Peace Sect: immortality, spells


Http www theodora com wfb china people html1
http://www.theodora.com/wfb/china_people.html & Wales

  • Quanzhen Tao—Baiyun Temple

  • 王嚞张三丰

  • 马钰、谭处端、刘处玄、丘处机 (The Great Master“大宗师” "活神仙")、王处一、郝大通、孙不二(The Taoist Holy Man“真人”)

  • Wang Chongyang—the theory of the three religions of the same origin; to cultivate oneself


Buddhism

Buddhism & Wales


Buddha
Buddha & Wales

  • Sakyamuni—Siddhartha Gautama, born on April 8, 464BC, a Hindu prince in India, in search of wisdom through poverty and meditation

  • Buddha (sanscrit: the enlightened one)

  • Buddhism—A religion, a discipline, a practice


Buddhism1
Buddhism & Wales

  • Suffering

  • Craving

  • Dharma

  • Karma

  • Reincarnation


Buddhism2
Buddhism & Wales

  • Mahayana Buddhism and Hinayana Buddhism (大、小乘 )

  • social concern and universal salvation (Japan, Korea, Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, and China): one for all; heal the world

  • the non-theistic ideal of self-purification to nirvana (Sri Lanka, Burma, China, and Cambodia): all for one; all by myself


Buddhism3
Buddhism & Wales

  • Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism (显宗、密宗)

  • Exoteric Buddhism educates all beings with simple and easily understood doctrine.

  • Esoteric Buddhism expounds Buddhist dharma by means of oral transmission.

  • Ppt, Word files, spoken lectures (eg. I Have A Dream): exoteric or esoteric?


Zen & Wales

  • Huineng (638-713), the founder of southern school of Zen— The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch

  • intuitive insight instead of hard work and the acquisition of even more knowledge and scriptures, wisdom and understanding beyond mere logic and reasoning


Zen & Wales

  • Holding a flower

  • 如是我闻:世尊在灵山会上,拈花示众,是时众皆默然,唯迦叶尊者破颜微笑。世尊曰:“吾有正法眼藏,涅盘妙心,实相无相,微妙法门,不立文字,教外别传,付嘱摩诃迦叶。

  • Neither the wind nor the banner is moving.

  • It is like a man drinking water and knowing whether it is cold or warm.


  • To see a World in a Grain of Sand & Wales

  • And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,

  • Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand

  • And Eternity in an hour.

  • Auguries of Innocence——William Blake (1757-1827) British poet

  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell:

  • “ If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite.”

  • 《六祖坛经》: “即时豁然,还得本心”



  • 一花一世界, & Wales

  • 一沙一天国;

  • 君掌盛无边,

  • 刹那含永劫。

  • (李叔同)宗白华


Reference
Reference & Wales

  • http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=1086&Pos=2&ColRank=1&Rank=326

  • http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=293&Pos=7&ColRank=1&Rank=176

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/tools/quizzes/ (BBC quizzes)

  • http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks1/re/teddys_day_out/index.htm (Teddy bear game)


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