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Chapter 10 Beliefs. Why to have religion?. Religions. Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks Provide comfort, a community, a moral code, traditions Give to the needy. Religions. The Golden Rule: to treat the others the way you want to be treated

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Chapter 10 Beliefs

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Chapter 10 beliefs

Chapter 10 Beliefs

Why to have religion

Why to have religion?



  • Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks

  • Provide comfort, a community, a moral code, traditions

  • Give to the needy



  • The Golden Rule: to treat the others the way you want to be treated

  • Believe in a supreme power: monotheism, polytheism, spirits, ghosts, goddesses, nature

Where do we come from what are we where are we going paul gauguin 1897 1898

Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?Paul Gauguin, 1897–1898

The uk population by religion april 2001

The UK population: by religion, April 2001

Religious composition of ethnic groups april 2001 england wales

Religious composition of ethnic groups, April 2001, England & Wales

The knowledge contest

The Knowledge Contest!

The catholic faith in jesus

The Catholic Faith in Jesus

  • Half of the world’s Christians

  • Infants are baptised shortly after birth

  • Coming-of-age ceremony at ages 13-15

  • Priests and bishop officiate

  • Christ’s teachings in the Bible’s New Testament

The catholic faith in jesus1

The Catholic Faith in Jesus

  • “Sign of the Cross”—the Holy Trinity

  • Father—God, Son—Jesus, Holy Spirit—presence of God

  • Eucharist—sacred ritual of Holy Communication — Lord’s Supper

  • Visual churches

The catholic faith in jesus2

The Catholic Faith in Jesus

  • To worship Jesus with all 5 of their senses

  • Music for the ears,

  • Incense for the nose,

  • Statues and art for the eyes,

  • Little old ladies reach out and touch something; the beads

  • To worship Jesus through the taste in communion



  • Each denomination (church group) worships differently

  • Some—confirmations at ages 13-15

  • Some baptise infants to wash away old sin

  • Roger Williams—Baptist Church, 1638

The protestant reformation

The Protestant Reformation

  • Nearly 16 centuries of unbroken Catholic domination of Christianity, the then wealthiest and most powerful institution on earth

  • 1302, a formal decree—no salvation outside the Roman Catholic Church

  • The Pope—ultimate truth and power, religious or political

Background serious problems

BackgroundSerious problems

  • Turmoil within the Church

  • Moving from Rome to Avignon, France

  • New papal tower constructed—symbol of the enormous power of papacy

  • Fondness of richness and treasure—corruption of the papal core

Background serious problems1

BackgroundSerious problems

  • People being disturbed

  • Violent war between France & England (over a century)

  • 1347, a massive outbreak of the black plague—25 million Europeans, 4 years

Background serious problems2

BackgroundSerious problems

  • In Rome, a second Pope elected

  • 31 years of battle for control of the church

  • A third Pope—1409-1415

  • The situation eventually resolved

Background damage


  • Who to believe?

  • Arrogance & corruption instead of truth & goodness

  • Need of reform

  • Risks of “heresy”: being put on trial or burned at a stake, eg. Johaness Hus: Czechoslovakia

The reformer

The Reformer

  • Martin Luther: Germany

  • Strong religious and political belief

  • The discovery of Christopher Columbus

  • The mass production of books

The reformer1

The Reformer

  • October 31st, 1517, to post a list of 95 criticisms, protesting the sale of indulgences

  • An indulgence: a spiritual favor granted by the church to sinners

  • By making difficult spiritual sacrifices

  • Important source of income for the church

The reformer2

The Reformer

  • Faith in Bible alone

  • Refusal to yield to the Pope

  • 3 revolutionary books sold in Germany

  • January 3rd, 1521, banished from Church

  • Translation of the Bible into German

The reformer3

The Reformer

  • John Calvin: predestination (Switzerland)

  • A terrible example of the majesty of God

  • To work hard and be thrifty

  • Capitalism flourished

  • A special police force to maintain public morality

  • Burning heretics

The reformer4

The Reformer

  • Henry VIII: divorce (England)

  • The Pope’s refusal to grant him annulment

  • The enraged king—Act of Supremacy, supreme head of the Church of England

  • Six wives

  • The Roman Church’s control of land and demand of more money from Henry VIII

  • Dissolution of monasteries

The reformer5

The Reformer

  • After his death

  • The Common Prayer, Sacraments

  • 42 articles

  • Mary I

  • Elizabeth I



  • Orthos: "right“; doxa: "belief"

  • Different in the way of life and worship

  • Maintaining the correct form of worshiping God, passed on from the very beginnings of Christianity

  • Ancient Jewish translation into Greek called the Septuagint



  • It does not have

  • a single founder,

  • a specific theological system,

  • a single system of morality,

  • or a central religious organization. 



  • It consists of "thousands of different religious groups that have evolved in India since 1500 BCE."

  • Henotheistic: a single deity, & other Gods and Goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that supreme God



  • 4000 years ago, Abraham (Iraq)

  • Abraham’s great-grandson: Yehuda, or Judah (Hebrew: priest)

  • Rabbi & cantor: coming of age ceremony

  • The Torah (the Hebrew scriptures) scrolls

  • The Exodus from Egypt



  • Holidays

  • Rosh Hashana—Jewish New Year

  • Yom Kippur—Day of Atonement

  • Hanukkah—Festival of Lights



  • Jewish Golden Rule:

  • “What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman.”

  • Torah, Shabbat, 3id



  • Prophets:

  • Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jesus, Muhammed (the final messenger of God)

  • Islam: submission to God

  • Muslims, Christians, Jews: same God

  • Islam & terrorism—Jihad



  • Salaama: Arabic for peace

  • Qur’an—Koran (the exact word of God)

  • Various cultural practices

  • Women and the head scarf

  • Friday: the religious day

  • Praying 5 times a day, facing Mecca (Saudi Arabia)



  • Coming of age:

  • Boys: 15, praying

  • Girls: 9, scarf and long sleeves?

  • Allah/God

  • Ramadan (fasting)

  • Imam (supreme leader, prayer leader)

The five pillars of islam

The Five Pillars of Islam

  • Shahadah: pledge of faith

  • Salah: daily prayers

  • Sawm: fasting

  • Zakah: giving

  • Hajj: pilgrimage (millions of Muslims)

Muslim golden rule

Muslim Golden Rule

  • “Love for others what you love for yourself and dislike for others what you dislike for yourself.”

  • Muhammed (Hadith)

  • Hadith, the report of the sayings, deeds and approvals of the Prophet Muhammad





  • An Indian religion combining Islamic and Hindu elements

  • Punjab, late 15th century, by Guru Nanak

  • Nanak: the first of the Ten Gurus, of whom Sikhs consider themselves disciples

Harmandir sahib the golden temple gurdwara gateway to the guru

Harmandir Sahib (The Golden Temple)Gurdwara (Gateway to the Guru)



  • One God for all people of all religions, full equality of all people, of men and women

  • Living a virtuous and truthful life

  • Condemnation of blind rituals such as fasting, visiting places of pilgrimage, superstitions, worship of the dead, idol worship etc.



  • An atheist believes there is no god or gods.

  • An Agnostic believes it cannot be known if a god or gods exist.

  • Moral code of behavior

  • Life’s meaning





  • A more relaxed and natural way of finding happiness

  • 300BC

  • Tao: a silent, pure, all powerful force that existed before there is heaven or earth

  • Living in harmony with nature



  • Secularisation: ornate shrines, brilliantly-colored statues, offering

  • Chinese folk gods

  • Public rituals

  • Immortality

Lao tzu

Lao Tzu

  • Contrastive unification mutually convertible

  • Good Fotune Lieth Within Bad, Bad Fortune Lurketh With Good.

  • A small country with a small population

  • Daodejing/Tao Te Ching—Classic of the Way and Its Power

Chuang tzu

Chuang Tzu

  • The all-in-one idea—Tao as the root and basis for all existence and transformation

  • Spiritual freedom—I’d rather be dragging my tail in the mud.

  • Zhuang Zi/Chuang Tzu (Nanhuajing)—

  • Neipian (Inner Chapters)

  • Waipian (Outer Chapters)

  • Zapian (Miscellaneous Chapters)

Http www theodora com wfb china people html

  • Fangxian Tao—Alchemy and Immortals

  • Huanglao Tao—Reigns of Wen and Jing (the Western Han Dynasty)

  • Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and Lao Zi

  • Wudoumi Tao (Zhengyi Tao orTianshi Tao) and Taiping Tao

  • Five Decaliter of Rice Sect & Peace Sect: immortality, spells

Http www theodora com wfb china people html1

  • Quanzhen Tao—Baiyun Temple

  • 王嚞张三丰

  • 马钰、谭处端、刘处玄、丘处机 (The Great Master“大宗师” "活神仙")、王处一、郝大通、孙不二(The Taoist Holy Man“真人”)

  • Wang Chongyang—the theory of the three religions of the same origin; to cultivate oneself





  • Sakyamuni—Siddhartha Gautama, born on April 8, 464BC, a Hindu prince in India, in search of wisdom through poverty and meditation

  • Buddha (sanscrit: the enlightened one)

  • Buddhism—A religion, a discipline, a practice



  • Suffering

  • Craving

  • Dharma

  • Karma

  • Reincarnation



  • Mahayana Buddhism and Hinayana Buddhism (大、小乘 )

  • social concern and universal salvation (Japan, Korea, Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, and China): one for all; heal the world

  • the non-theistic ideal of self-purification to nirvana (Sri Lanka, Burma, China, and Cambodia): all for one; all by myself



  • Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism (显宗、密宗)

  • Exoteric Buddhism educates all beings with simple and easily understood doctrine.

  • Esoteric Buddhism expounds Buddhist dharma by means of oral transmission.

  • Ppt, Word files, spoken lectures (eg. I Have A Dream): exoteric or esoteric?

Chapter 10 beliefs


  • Huineng (638-713), the founder of southern school of Zen— The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch

  • intuitive insight instead of hard work and the acquisition of even more knowledge and scriptures, wisdom and understanding beyond mere logic and reasoning

Chapter 10 beliefs


  • Holding a flower

  • 如是我闻:世尊在灵山会上,拈花示众,是时众皆默然,唯迦叶尊者破颜微笑。世尊曰:“吾有正法眼藏,涅盘妙心,实相无相,微妙法门,不立文字,教外别传,付嘱摩诃迦叶。

  • Neither the wind nor the banner is moving.

  • It is like a man drinking water and knowing whether it is cold or warm.

Chapter 10 beliefs

  • To see a World in a Grain of Sand

  • And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,

  • Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand

  • And Eternity in an hour.

  • Auguries of Innocence——William Blake (1757-1827) British poet

  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell:

  • “ If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite.”

  • 《六祖坛经》: “即时豁然,还得本心”

Chapter 10 beliefs

  • The spring flowers, the autumn moon;

  • Summer breezes, winter snow.

  • If useless things do not clutter your mind,

  • You have the best days of your life.

Chapter 10 beliefs

  • 一花一世界,

  • 一沙一天国;

  • 君掌盛无边,

  • 刹那含永劫。

  • (李叔同)宗白华





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