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Land Surface Processes in Global Climate Models (1) . Review of last lecture. Effects of different surface types: desert, city, grassland, forest, sea. Deeper heat/water reservoir, decreased Bowen ratio, thinner BL and enhanced convective instability.

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Review of last lecture
Review of last lecture

  • Effects of different surface types: desert, city, grassland, forest, sea. Deeper heat/water reservoir, decreased Bowen ratio, thinner BL and enhanced convective instability.

  • Effects of vegetation: (1) makes heat/water reservoir deeper, (2) enhance evaporation, (3) grows and dies in response to environmental conditions

  • Heat island effect. 7 causes

  • Dispersion of air pollution. Dependence on stability (name of 3 types) and inversion (name of 2 types)

  • Global carbon cycle: linking the world together. Therefore we need to protect the environment.


Framework of national center for atmospheric research ncar community climate system model ccsm
Framework of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

Atmosphere (CAM)

Land (CLM)

Coupler .

Sea Ice (CSIM)

Ocean (POP)


Community land model clm design philosophy
Community Land Model (CLM) Design Philosophy Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

The model is designed to run in three different configurations:

1. Stand-alone executable code as part of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

2. A subroutine call within the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) in which CAM/CLM represent single executable code.

3. Stand-alone executable code in which the model is forced with atmospheric datasets. In this mode, the model runs on a spatial grid that can range from one point to global.


Clm model components
CLM Model Components Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

  • Biogeophysics

  • Hydrologic cycle

  • Biogeochemistry

  • Dynamic vegetation


Clm model components biogeophysics
CLM Model Components: Biogeophysics Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


Clm model components hydrological cycle i
CLM Model Components: Hydrological Cycle I Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


Clm model components hydrological cycle ii
CLM Model Components: Hydrological Cycle II Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


Clm water balance
CLM Water balance Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


River systems simulated by clm
River Systems Simulated by CLM Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

Dai, Qian, Trenberth and Milliman (2009), J. Climate


Clm model components biogeochemistry
CLM Model Components: Biogeochemistry Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


Clm model components dynamic vegetation
CLM Model Components: Dynamic Vegetation Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


Dgvm vegetation biogeography vs satellite
DGVM Vegetation biogeography vs. Satellite Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


Processes simulated in clm3
Processes simulated in CLM3 Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

• Vegetation composition, structure, and phenology

• Absorption, reflection, and transmittance of solar radiation

• Absorption and emission of longwave radiation

• Momentum, sensible heat (ground and canopy), and latent heat

(ground evaporation, canopy evaporation, transpiration) fluxes

• Heat transfer in soil and snow including phase change

• Canopy hydrology (interception, throughfall, and drip)

• Snow hydrology (snow accumulation and melt, compaction, water transfer between snow layers)

• Soil hydrology (surface runoff, infiltration, sub-surface drainage, redistribution of water within the column)

• Stomatal physiology and photosynthesis

• Lake temperatures and fluxes

• Routing of runoff from rivers to ocean

• Volatile organic compounds


Configuration of the clm subgrid hierarchy
Configuration Community Climate System Model (CCSM) of the CLM Subgrid Hierarchy

The land surface is represented by 5 primary sub-grid land cover types

The vegetated portion of a grid cell is further divided into patches of plant functional types,

each with its own leaf and stem area index and canopy height.

Each subgrid land cover type and PFT patch is a separate column for energy and water calculations.


Plant functional types
Plant Functional Types Community Climate System Model (CCSM)


How processes are simulated
How processes are simulated Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

Biogeophysical processes are simulated for

each subgrid landunit, column, and PFT independently and

each subgrid unit maintains its own prognostic variables.

The grid-average atmospheric forcing is used to force

all subgrid unit within a grid cell.

The surface variables and fluxes required by the atmosphere

are obtained by averaging the subgrid quantities

weighted by their fractional areas.


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