Parts of a volcano
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MAGMA CHAMBER PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Parts of a volcano Also see the Glossary of volcano terminology http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/volcano_terminology.html. The space where magma collects below a volcano. MAGMA CHAMBER. The channel through which magma rises to the surface. CONDUIT. Vent = the top of the conduit.

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MAGMA CHAMBER

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Parts of a volcanoAlso see the Glossary of volcano terminologyhttp://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/volcano_terminology.html

The space where magma collects below a volcano

MAGMA CHAMBER

The channel through which magma rises to the surface

CONDUIT


Vent = the top of the conduit

Crater = rim of the vent

SUMMIT ERUPTION (Lava and other materials erupting from a vent on top)

Can also be FLANK eruption (materials erupting from a vent on the SIDE)


A CALDERA forms

  • When the magma chamber of a volcano empties out and the volcano collapses (e.g. Crater Lake, Oregon)

    Or

  • When a volcano blows its top (e.g. Mount St. Helens)


Major types of volcanoes also see on-line supplemental texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/

  • SHIELD VOLCANOES

  • Broad, gentle domes, formed from basaltic lava (Example: Hawaii)

  • Can havelava flows with smooth, glassy rope-like surfaces called PAHOEHOE, or

  • Lava flows with jagged broken surface called AA

  • CINDER CONES

  • Small, symmetrical conical pile of PYROCLASTS (meaning solid chunks of rocks and ash)

    Example: Sunset crater


  • COMPOSITE VOLCANOES or STRATOVOLCANOES

  • Cone shaped, with alternating layers of lava and loose pyroclastics

    (Example: Mount Shasta, Mount Fuji)

  • Associated with subduction zones

  • Distributed around the Pacific ocean (Ring of fire) and Mediterranean sea


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