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Partnerships in Action. Lectures 6 and 7 Spatial Data Infrastructures. Longley et al. Chapter 20. Partnerships. Often fraught with hazards – can take longer and create friction BUT Often there is no real choice for they can bring: New staff skills Additional technology Marketing skills

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Partnerships in action

Partnerships in Action

Lectures 6 and 7Spatial Data Infrastructures

Longley et al.

Chapter 20


  • Often fraught with hazards – can take longer and create friction


  • Often there is no real choice for they can bring:

    • New staff skills

    • Additional technology

    • Marketing skills

    • Better brand image

    • New insights on user needs

    • New products

    • Cost- and risk-sharing

Local partnerships an example
Local partnerships: an example


SB County Planning & Develop

Island Packers

Blue Planet

Commercial Fisherman of SB, Inc

Ventura College


Channel Islands National Park

Calif Coastal Commission

Many, many others …

Channel Island National Marine Sanctuary

Local to global partnerships an example
Local to global partnerships: an example

GIS Day is an annual grassroots event which began in November 1999, designed to promote geographic literacy in schools, communities, and organizations. GIS Day GIS users and vendors open their doors to schools, businesses, and the general public to showcase real-world applications of the technology.

News of the event is spread by use of the Internet and by advertising. Any organization can host such an event: 2,400+ organizations hosted GIS Day events in more than 91 different countries in 1999 (see map). About 2.4 million children and adults were enlightened on GIS technology on that day

National partnerships via nsdis
National partnerships via NSDIs

  • The problem:

    • Data duplication commonplace – so waste occurs

    • Ad hoc data sharing has many difficulties

    • Data often tailored to one application

    • Best data often collected in greatest detail at local level but not accessible to regional or national folk

    • Indexes/metadata to available GI unknown until recently

    • No general protocols for any of this until NSDI…

What is a national spatial data infrastructure
What is a National Spatial Data Infrastructure?

  • ‘the technology, policies, standards, and human resources necessary to acquire, process, store, distribute, and improve utilization of geospatial data’

    Source: Presidential Executive Order #12906 (1994): 'Co-ordinating Geographic Data Acquisition and Access: The National Spatial Data Infrastructure' W Clinton.

    BUT what does it mean in practice?

Initial elements of the us nsdi
Initial elements of the US NSDI

  • Defined standards (mandated on federal agencies and encouraged for others) Minimizing inconsistency

  • Clearinghouse – metadata descriptions of existing data. Advertising what is available

  • National geospatial data framework - a common ‘template’ on which to assemble other data

The nsdi is composed of
The NSDI is composed of



Geo data



The data provide a core...

Geographic/Geospatial Data

Categories of geographic data
Categories of Geographic Data

  • Community-developed data sets

  • single purpose

  • potential re-use

  • common content specification

  • “Framework” data



Categories of Geographic Data

Framework data












Spatial Analysis

Spatial Analysis

Base for Other Data

Base for Other Data

Finished Maps

Finished Maps

Framework Data

Elevation and bathymetry

Digital orthoimagery


Describing your data...



Metadata nutritional label for gis data sets
Metadata: “nutritional” label for GIS data sets

  • Internally - saves 4 hrs research 10 times a year = (4x10x$50) = $2,000 (time it takes to look up or contact someone for information about a dataset)

  • External Questions - refer 30 inquires/year (1hr/inquiry) = (30x1x $50)=$1,500 (time it takes to answer calls from people who want to use the data or find out more about it)

  • Future reuse/enhancement -$5,000 to $25,000

  • Liability (lawyers, courts) - $$$$

The uses of metadata

  • Provides documentation of existing internal geospatial data resources within an organization (inventory)

  • Permits structured search and comparison of held spatial data by others (advertising)

  • Provides end-users with adequate information to take the data and use it in an appropriate context(liability)

Clearinghouse (catalog)

Making data discoverable...




Clearinghouse provides
Clearinghouse provides...

  • Discoveryof spatial data

  • Distributed search worldwide

  • Uniform interface for spatial data searches

  • Advertisingfor your data holdings

Clearinghouse operates as...

  • Entry point to constellation of servers

  • Collection of distributed servers, using a common protocol (e.g., Z39.50)

  • A virtual “Google” for geographic data

This is all “Clearinghouse”




“Nodes” or









Consistent approaches...

Clearinghouse (catalog)




Who builds standards
Who builds standards?

  • ISO - Intl Standards Organization

  • FGDC Standards working group in partnership with . . .

    • FGDC Thematic subcommittees

  • Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)

  • Concerned organizations

  • Producers and users of geospatial data

Types of standards
Types of standards

  • Data content

    • Common classifications

    • Common collection criteria

  • Data management

    • Metadata

    • Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

  • Data transfer protocols (e.g., WMS)

Clearinghouse catalog standards
Clearinghouse/Catalog & Standards

  • Important differences:

    • Data models, data structures (formats), query languages, (syntactic)

    • meaning of terms in metadata, meaning of values in data (semantic)

    •  E.g.:

      •  Metadata:

        • Different metadata standards (ISO vs. FGDC)

        • Different terms: ‘Seabed’ vs. ‘Seafloor’

        • ‘Coastline’ vs. ‘Shoreline’

Open geospatial consortium ogc
Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)

  • OGC Web Service:

    • OGC specification

    • Interface allowing requests for geographic “resources” across the Web using platform-independent calls

    • Main OGC services:

      • Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW)

      • Web Map Service (WMS)

      • Web Feature Service (WFS)

      • Web Coverage Service (WCS)

Catalog services for the web csw example

Global atlas

Local atlases

Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) Example

  • International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN)

  • Connect individual coastal atlases to an integrated global atlas

Catalog services for the web csw example1
Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) Example

  • ICAN CSW based on open source GeoNetwork




Atlas X

ISO Metadata


MIDA terminology

FGDC Metadata


OCA terminology

X Standard


X terminology

Next step for ican is wms
Next step for ICAN is WMS

Linking of terms in metadata helps ultimate to link to data:


is similar to












Web mapping service wms example

GetMap Operation

Web Mapping Service (WMS) Example

  • DISMAR: Data Integration System for Marine Pollution and Water Quality. More current projects at

International coastal atlas network ican science oregonstate edu
International Coastal Atlas


Clearinghouse (catalog)





Lots of people involved
Lots of people involved…

  • Federal government (many agencies)

  • State government

  • Local government

  • Private sector – contractors, value-adders, exploiters

  • Not for profit organizations

  • Citizenry

  • Others…

    No one is in charge…

Government and the private sector
Government and the private sector

  • National governments own and control national mapping agencies

  • All such mapping produced to national specifications until recently

  • New private sector providers:

    • Produce imagery for anywhere in world

    • Produce road databases

  • How do we get these to work together?

A research agenda
A Research Agenda

  • Future of the Spatial Information Infrastructure

    • Information policy

      • Intellectual property rights, privacy, liability

    • Digital government research

    • Local generation and integration of data

      • Public participation GIS

Short term research priorities www ucgis org priorities research

Institutional aspects of SDIs

GI Partnering

GI Resource Mgmt

Gradation, Indeterminate Boundaries

Geospatial Semantic Web


Pervasive Computing

Location Based Services

Spatial Clustering

Geoslavery & Security

Geospatial Data Fusion

Global Representation and Modeling

Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

Dynamic Modeling

Short Term Research priorities-->research

Other research priorities long term

Geographic Representation


Spatial Data Acquisition & Integration

Spatial Cognition

Spatial Ontologies

Space and Space/Time Analysis & Modeling



GIS and Society

Geographic Information Engineering

Other Research Priorities(Long Term)

A global spatial data infrastructure
A Global Spatial Data Infrastructure?

  • Difficult enough to get national players to work together…

  • Is GSDI a process, a general framework or a product?

  • Who are the stakeholders?

  • Who needs it? (military doing what they need themselves?)

Life partnerships and gis
Life, partnerships and GIS

  • When do you work in partnership with other people or organisations?

    • What makes it worthwhile?

      The same applies to GIS partnerships:

    • Commitment to a cause, wish to improve matters?

    • Personal ambition? Influence? Fame? Status?

    • Money?

Summary 1
Summary - 1

  • Partnerships versus competition

    • Local

    • National Spatial Data Infrastructure

      • Geodata, Framework, Metadata, Clearinghouse, Standards, Partnerships

    • Global Spatial Data Infrastructures

  • Political power in partnerships

  • Bringing it all together: the GIS game

Summary 2
Summary - 2

  • Partnerships potentially very powerful so look beyond the normal..

  • Nothing is without cost…

  • Choose GIS partners carefully, nurture relationships…