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Partnerships in Action. Lectures 6 and 7 Spatial Data Infrastructures. Longley et al. Chapter 20. Partnerships. Often fraught with hazards – can take longer and create friction BUT Often there is no real choice for they can bring: New staff skills Additional technology Marketing skills

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Lectures 6 and 7 Spatial Data Infrastructures

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Partnerships in action

Partnerships in Action

Lectures 6 and 7Spatial Data Infrastructures

Longley et al.

Chapter 20


Partnerships

Partnerships

  • Often fraught with hazards – can take longer and create friction

    BUT

  • Often there is no real choice for they can bring:

    • New staff skills

    • Additional technology

    • Marketing skills

    • Better brand image

    • New insights on user needs

    • New products

    • Cost- and risk-sharing


Local partnerships an example

Local partnerships: an example

NOAA NMS

SB County Planning & Develop

Island Packers

Blue Planet

Commercial Fisherman of SB, Inc

Ventura College

UCSB

Channel Islands National Park

Calif Coastal Commission

Many, many others …

Channel Island National Marine Sanctuary


Local to global partnerships an example

Local to global partnerships: an example

GIS Day is an annual grassroots event which began in November 1999, designed to promote geographic literacy in schools, communities, and organizations. GIS Day GIS users and vendors open their doors to schools, businesses, and the general public to showcase real-world applications of the technology.

News of the event is spread by use of the Internet and by advertising. Any organization can host such an event: 2,400+ organizations hosted GIS Day events in more than 91 different countries in 1999 (see map). About 2.4 million children and adults were enlightened on GIS technology on that day


Www gisday com

www.gisday.com


National partnerships via nsdis

National partnerships via NSDIs

  • The problem:

    • Data duplication commonplace – so waste occurs

    • Ad hoc data sharing has many difficulties

    • Data often tailored to one application

    • Best data often collected in greatest detail at local level but not accessible to regional or national folk

    • Indexes/metadata to available GI unknown until recently

    • No general protocols for any of this until NSDI…


What is a national spatial data infrastructure

What is a National Spatial Data Infrastructure?

  • ‘the technology, policies, standards, and human resources necessary to acquire, process, store, distribute, and improve utilization of geospatial data’

    Source: Presidential Executive Order #12906 (1994): 'Co-ordinating Geographic Data Acquisition and Access: The National Spatial Data Infrastructure' W Clinton.

    BUT what does it mean in practice?


Initial elements of the us nsdi

Initial elements of the US NSDI

  • Defined standards (mandated on federal agencies and encouraged for others) Minimizing inconsistency

  • Clearinghouse – metadata descriptions of existing data. Advertising what is available

  • National geospatial data framework - a common ‘template’ on which to assemble other data


The nsdi is composed of

The NSDI is composed of

Clearinghouse

Metadata

Geo data

Partnerships

Standards


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

The data provide a core...

Geographic/Geospatial Data


Categories of geographic data

Categories of Geographic Data

  • Community-developed data sets

  • single purpose

  • potential re-use

  • common content specification

  • “Framework” data


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

Specialized

Framework

Categories of Geographic Data


Framework data

State

Private

Utilities

Federal

Local

Hydrography

Geodetic

Cadastral

Railroads

Roads

Boundaries

Spatial Analysis

Spatial Analysis

Base for Other Data

Base for Other Data

Finished Maps

Finished Maps

Framework Data

Elevation and bathymetry

Digital orthoimagery


Web sites of the week

Web Sites of the Week


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

Metadata

Describing your data...

Specialized

Framework


Metadata nutritional label for gis data sets

Metadata: “nutritional” label for GIS data sets

  • Internally - saves 4 hrs research 10 times a year = (4x10x$50) = $2,000 (time it takes to look up or contact someone for information about a dataset)

  • External Questions - refer 30 inquires/year (1hr/inquiry) = (30x1x $50)=$1,500 (time it takes to answer calls from people who want to use the data or find out more about it)

  • Future reuse/enhancement -$5,000 to $25,000

  • Liability (lawyers, courts) - $$$$


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

The uses of metadata

  • Provides documentation of existing internal geospatial data resources within an organization (inventory)

  • Permits structured search and comparison of held spatial data by others (advertising)

  • Provides end-users with adequate information to take the data and use it in an appropriate context(liability)


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

Clearinghouse (catalog)

Making data discoverable...

Metadata

Specialized

Framework


Clearinghouse provides

Clearinghouse provides...

  • Discoveryof spatial data

  • Distributed search worldwide

  • Uniform interface for spatial data searches

  • Advertisingfor your data holdings


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

Clearinghouse operates as...

  • Entry point to constellation of servers

  • Collection of distributed servers, using a common protocol (e.g., Z39.50)

  • A virtual “Google” for geographic data


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

This is all “Clearinghouse”

Gateway

NOAA

Clearinghouse

“Nodes” or

Servers

Web

Client

Oregon

USGS

NMD

NGS


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

Standards

Consistent approaches...

Clearinghouse (catalog)

Metadata

Specialized

Framework


Who builds standards

Who builds standards?

  • ISO - Intl Standards Organization

  • FGDC Standards working group in partnership with . . .

    • FGDC Thematic subcommittees

  • Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)

  • Concerned organizations

  • Producers and users of geospatial data


Types of standards

Types of standards

  • Data content

    • Common classifications

    • Common collection criteria

  • Data management

    • Metadata

    • Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

  • Data transfer protocols (e.g., WMS)


Clearinghouse catalog standards

Clearinghouse/Catalog & Standards

  • Important differences:

    • Data models, data structures (formats), query languages, (syntactic)

    • meaning of terms in metadata, meaning of values in data (semantic)

    •  E.g.:

      •  Metadata:

        • Different metadata standards (ISO vs. FGDC)

        • Different terms:‘Seabed’ vs. ‘Seafloor’

        • ‘Coastline’ vs. ‘Shoreline’


Open geospatial consortium ogc

Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)

  • OGC Web Service:

    • OGC specification

    • Interface allowing requests for geographic “resources” across the Web using platform-independent calls

    • Main OGC services:

      • Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW)

      • Web Map Service (WMS)

      • Web Feature Service (WFS)

      • Web Coverage Service (WCS)


Catalog services for the web csw example

Global atlas

Local atlases

Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) Example

  • International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN)

  • Connect individual coastal atlases to an integrated global atlas


Catalog services for the web csw example1

Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) Example

  • ICAN CSW based on open source GeoNetwork

  • Geonetwork-opensource.org

“Seabed”

“Seafloor”

Atlas X

ISO Metadata

&

MIDA terminology

FGDC Metadata

&

OCA terminology

X Standard

&

X terminology


Next step for ican is wms

Next step for ICAN is WMS

Linking of terms in metadata helps ultimate to link to data:

ICAN:Coastline

is similar to

OCA:Shoreline

CSW

WMS

WFS

CSW

WMS

WFS

CSW

WMS

WFS

X


Web mapping service wms example

GetMap Operation

Web Mapping Service (WMS) Example

  • DISMAR: Data Integration System for Marine Pollution and Water Quality. More current projects at http://interrisk.nersc.no/


International coastal atlas network ican science oregonstate edu

International Coastal Atlas Networkican.science.oregonstate.edu


Lectures 6 and 7 spatial data infrastructures

Partnerships

Clearinghouse (catalog)

Metadata

GEOdata

Framework

Standards


Lots of people involved

Lots of people involved…

  • Federal government (many agencies)

  • State government

  • Local government

  • Private sector – contractors, value-adders, exploiters

  • Not for profit organizations

  • Citizenry

  • Others…

    No one is in charge…


Data gov

Data.gov


Mapaction org

Mapaction.org


Government and the private sector

Government and the private sector

  • National governments own and control national mapping agencies

  • All such mapping produced to national specifications until recently

  • New private sector providers:

    • Produce imagery for anywhere in world

    • Produce road databases

  • How do we get these to work together?


A research agenda

A Research Agenda

  • Future of the Spatial Information Infrastructure

    • Information policy

      • Intellectual property rights, privacy, liability

    • Digital government research

    • Local generation and integration of data

      • Public participation GIS


Short term research priorities www ucgis org priorities research

Institutional aspects of SDIs

GI Partnering

GI Resource Mgmt

Gradation, Indeterminate Boundaries

Geospatial Semantic Web

Spatialization

Pervasive Computing

Location Based Services

Spatial Clustering

Geoslavery & Security

Geospatial Data Fusion

Global Representation and Modeling

Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

Dynamic Modeling

Short Term Research Prioritieswww.ucgis.org priorities-->research


Other research priorities long term

Geographic Representation

Scale

Spatial Data Acquisition & Integration

Spatial Cognition

Spatial Ontologies

Space and Space/Time Analysis & Modeling

Uncertainty

Visualization

GIS and Society

Geographic Information Engineering

Other Research Priorities(Long Term)


A global spatial data infrastructure

A Global Spatial Data Infrastructure?

  • Difficult enough to get national players to work together…

  • Is GSDI a process, a general framework or a product?

  • Who are the stakeholders?

  • Who needs it? (military doing what they need themselves?)


Life partnerships and gis

Life, partnerships and GIS

  • When do you work in partnership with other people or organisations?

    • What makes it worthwhile?

      The same applies to GIS partnerships:

    • Commitment to a cause, wish to improve matters?

    • Personal ambition? Influence? Fame? Status?

    • Money?


Summary 1

Summary - 1

  • Partnerships versus competition

    • Local

    • National Spatial Data Infrastructure

      • Geodata, Framework, Metadata, Clearinghouse, Standards, Partnerships

    • Global Spatial Data Infrastructures

  • Political power in partnerships

  • Bringing it all together: the GIS game


Summary 2

Summary - 2

  • Partnerships potentially very powerful so look beyond the normal..

  • Nothing is without cost…

  • Choose GIS partners carefully, nurture relationships…


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