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Current Trends in the Power Quality Market. February 28, 2006. EPRI Power Quality Study in U.S. 93% of all Voltage sags and outages are less than 10 seconds in duration. Continuous Power System(CPS). Diesel Genset. For continuous power after 10 seconds. Critical Load. UPS Electronics.

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slide2

EPRI Power Quality Study in U.S.

93% of all Voltage sags and outages are less than 10 seconds in duration

continuous power system cps
Continuous Power System(CPS)

Diesel Genset

For continuous power

after 10 seconds

Critical Load

UPS

Electronics

ATS

Utility

Power

Battery string

for immediate power

slide4

Applications: Data Center

  • Brokerage Firms, Credit Card Processing, Airline/Ticket Reservation Firms, Order Processing, “Internet Presence”
  • Average Cost per Outage: $200k - $6.5M
slide5

Applications: Healthcare/Hospital

  • MRI, CT, Cath Lab, Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Lab
  • Average Cost Per Outage: ???
slide6

Applications: Process Control

  • Semiconductor Manufacturing, Refineries, Petrochemical, Bakeries, Plastic Extrusion…
  • J.I.T. Shipments
  • Average Cost Per Outage: $40,000 - $2.5M
slide7

Costly Downtime!

Industry Avg cost of downtime ($/hr)Brokerage $6,450,000 Credit Card $2,600,000 Pay Per View $150,000 Home Shopping $113,000 Catalog Sales $90,000 Airline Reservations $90,000 Tele-Ticket $69,000 Package Shipping $28,000 ATM Fees $14,400Source: 7x24 Exchange

insurance considerations
“Insurance” Considerations
  • Cost of Outage vs. Cost of “Insurance”
  • Consider 5 year to 10 year life cycle cost
  • Do Not Forget Maintenance Costs
  • Which Energy Storage Technology is Best Suited for the Application?
battery technologies
Battery Technologies:
  • 10 Year “VRLA”
    • A.k.a. “Maintenance Free”, “Gel Cell”, AGM
    • 3 to 7 year life on most UPS’s
    • Fails in “open” or “shorted” position
    • Low cost, most prevalent
slide10

Conventional Grid Design

Improved High Rate Grid Design

battery technologies1
20 Year Sealed VRLA

12 to 18 year life (depending on number of outages; environment)

Fails in “shorted” position

About 2x initial cost of 10Year VRLA

Battery Technologies:
battery technologies2
Battery Technologies:
  • 20 Year “Wet” Cell
    • 17 to 20 year life
    • Very reliable
    • High maintenance, large footprint, eye wash station…
    • About 3x initial cost of 10 Year VRLA
battery maintenance
Battery Maintenance
  • IEEE Std 1188- Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries for Stationary Applications
    • Monthly: float voltage, charger output, temperature measurements
    • Quarterly: cell/unit ohmic values; temperature value of each negative terminal; representative sample of intercell connection resistances
    • Annually: cell-to-cell and terminal connection detail resistance of the entire battery; AC ripple current and/or voltage imposed on the battery
battery monitoring
Battery Monitoring
  • More Prevalent
  • “Real Time” Status of Batteries
  • Monitors: Impedance, Temperature, and Float Charging Voltage
  • Cost = $6k to $10k per system (installed)
other energy storage technologies
Other Energy Storage Technologies
  • Flywheels
  • Ultracapacitors
  • Lithium Ion Batteries
  • Thermal and Compressed Air Storage
typical double conversion ups oneline

Static Bypass

6-Pulse Rectifier

Inverter

DC

AC

DC

AC

Input Filter

Batteries

Typical Double Conversion UPS Oneline
slide18

The Evolution of the Rectifier/Converter Device

DIODE

THYRISTOR

IGBT:INSULATED GATE

BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR

IGBT

the evolution of the converter rectifier circuit
The Evolution of the Converter (Rectifier) Circuit

CONV.:CONVERTER

6 PULSE CONV.

12 PULSE CONV.

PWM CONV.:PULSE WIDTH

MODULATION CONVERTER

PWM CONV.

slide21

12 PULSE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT AND INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORM

Ic

Id

図3.7(5) 12相サイリスタ整流回路と交流入力電流波形

slide22

THREE PHASE PWM CONVERTER CIRCUIT

P

L

AC Input Current

C

AC Input Voltage

Sine Wave Form (pf=1.0)

N

図3.18PWM制御三相ブリッジコンバータ

slide23

6-PULSE THYRISTOR RECTIFIER

12-PULSE THYRISTOR RECTIFIER

PWM IGBT CONVERTER

5f

7f

11f

13f

17f

19f

INPUT CURRENT HARMONIC CONTENT

%

pwm converter 2
PWM CONVERTER (2)
  • The input power factor is

UNITY (1.0) with PWM converter

0.8 – 0.85 with Thyristor rectifier

results of igbt converter
Results of IGBT Converter
  • Generator Sizing Dependant Upon UPS Input Requirements
  • Linear Current Draw = Smaller Generator
  • IEEE 519 – Low Current Harmonics at Utility Source
inverter power device history
INVERTER POWER DEVICE HISTORY

GTO:GATE TURN OFF THYRISTOR

BPT:BIPOLAR POWER TRANSISTOR

THYRISTOR

G T O

BPT

IGBT:INSULATED GATE

BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR

IGBT

high speed pwm inverter
High Speed PWM Inverter
  • Improved output control characteristics resulting from the use of a high speed PWM inverter
  • 16kHz Switching Frequency
  • Supports nonlinear loads with minimal voltage distortion
slide28

“ALL IGBT UPS”

IGBT INV

IGBT CONV

also improving efficiencies
Also…Improving Efficiencies
  • UPS efficiencies are up 10% over the past 15 years
  • Most large UPS systems are currently over 93% efficient
  • In 3 - 5 Years, Most Large UPS Systems Will Be > 97% Efficient
other trends
Other Trends…
  • Higher Output Power Factor on UPS
    • Match trends in the Computer Power Supply Market
  • Internal Redundancy/Scalability for High 9’s Applications
    • Avoid Single Points of Failure
    • Maintain High Efficiency
what does all this mean

What does all this mean?

It’s dependant on your susceptibility.

Given the quality of supply do I have to worry about problems with my equipment or systems?

what you should be asking

What you should be asking…

What is my susceptibility to power problems?

What is my economic exposure to such problems?

$$$$$$

the big picture

The big picture…

It’s the complete electrical environment, not just the quality of supply.

what you should be asking1

What you should be asking…

Does my power system have the capacity for my present needs?

How about future growth?

Be proactive!

thank you for your time
Thank you for your time!

Chuck Barry

Central Region Sales Manager

Toshiba UPS

8711 Burnet Road, Suite E-55

Austin, TX 78731

Tel. (512) 658-5267

Email: [email protected]

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