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The Civil Rights Movement. Segregation. De jure segregation – imposed by law 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson – separate but equal ok De facto segregation – by unwritten custom or tradition Jim Crow laws – south segregated everything and prohibited voting. CORE.

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segregation
Segregation
  • De jure segregation – imposed by law
  • 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson – separate but equal ok
  • De facto segregation – by unwritten custom or tradition
  • Jim Crow laws – south segregated everything and prohibited voting
slide3
CORE
  • Congress of Racial Equality – 1940s founded by James Farmer
  • Apply non violent methods to gain civil rights
  • 1947 – Jackie Robinson – joined the Brooklyn Dodgers – 1st Af.Amer to play professional baseball
brown v board of education
Brown v. Board of Education
  • 1954 – Topeka, Kansas
  • Thurgood Marshall and a team of lawyers from the NAACP
  • Based on precedent of other cases - college
  • Separate NOT equal- violated Constitution
  • New Chief Justice Earl Warren – All nine Supremes unanimous
  • Had to desegregate – with all deliberate speed.
  • Some faster than others
little rock arkansas
Little Rock, Arkansas
  • Plan to gradually desegregate schools
  • Central High School
  • Nine African Amer. volunteered to be first
  • Elizabeth Eckford
  • Gov Orval Faubus blocked the way
  • President called out federal troops – they stayed all year to guard the students on school grounds
  • Ernest Green – 1st to graduate
civil rights act of 1957
Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • Commission to investigate violation of civil rights
  • Lacked teeth
montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • December 1, 1955 – Rosa Parks
  • Montgomery, Alabama
  • Arrested for refusing to give up her seat
  • Some civil rights activists organized a bus boycott – one day
  • NAACP organized legal battle
martin luther king jr
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Non violent protest
  • Based on writings of Thoreau and actions of Gandhi.
  • Baptist minister
  • Urged Montgomery Improvement Assoc to continue bus boycott
  • It continued for over a year.
  • 1956 – Supreme ct ruled segregated bussed unconstitutional
slide15
SCLC
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • King and Ralph Abernathy
  • Nonviolent resistance to fight injustice
sit ins
Sit Ins
  • Feb 1, 1960 – students ordered coffee and doughnuts at a Woolworth’s counter in Greensboro, NC – refused service
  • 4 students staged a sit in – stayed until closing time
  • Kept coming back every day with more people until served
slide19
SNCC
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
  • 175 students from 30 states
  • Create a grass roots movement that involved all classes of Af. Amer.
freedom riders
Freedom Riders
  • Interstate transportation - segregated
  • Supreme Ct had already ruled illegal
  • 1961 – CORE staged a “freedom ride” from Wash. DC to New Orleans – 2 buses
  • Violated segregation laws
  • Alabama, one bus firebombed – the other attacked by a mob in Birmingham
kennedy
Kennedy
  • Had helped get MLK freed from jail – helped him win narrow election over Nixon
  • Had Mississippi police protect the riders – but would not protect the activists who started it
meredith and evers
Meredith and Evers
  • James Meredith – Air Force vet who wanted to enroll at Univ of Mississippi (all white)
  • 1962 won Sup. Ct case which ordered desegregation – Medgar Evers instrumental in this effort
  • Kennedy – “Americans are free to disagree with the law, but not to disobey it”
  • Meredith graduated Ole Miss in 1963 and then went to Columbia Law School
  • Medger Evers was assassinated on his front doorstep in June 1963
mlk in birmingham
MLK in Birmingham
  • SCLC began a campaign in Birmingham – the most segregated city in the south
  • Began nonviolently – City got a court order to prohibit march
  • Good Friday – April 12 1963, MLK defies order and marches anyway
  • Arrested
  • Letter from Birmingham Jail
  • Kids joined marches
  • Eugene “Bull” Connor would not tolerate demonstrations and set the dogs and fire hoses on protestors
march on washington
March on Washington
  • Aug 28, 1963
  • NAACP, SCLC, SNCC
  • More than 200,000
  • One of the largest political demonstrations in US history.
  • I Have A Dream speech
civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Three weeks after march – bomb exploded in the Sixteenth St Baptist Church in Birmingham.
  • 4 young girls killed
  • Two months later JFK assassinated in Dallas, TX
  • Lyndon B. Johnson –
  • Banned segregation in public areas and gave the fed govt. the ability to demand the desegregation of schools.
  • EEOC – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • Senate tried to block by filibuster- went on for 80 days
freedom summer
Freedom Summer
  • 1964 – SNCC staged volunteer education projects in Mississippi
  • Three civil rights workers disappeared – later found out they had been murdered
  • Fannie Lou Hamer – Mississippi Democratic Freedom Party MDFP
march on selma
March on Selma
  • 1965 – MLK and the SCLC organized a march in Selma, Alabama
  • March 7 – Bloody Sunday- State troopers attacked marchers as they walked across the bridge.
  • TV coverage outraged the nation.
new legislation
New Legislation
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 – banned literacy tests
  • 24th Amendment – banned poll tax
malcolm x
Malcolm X
  • Radical activist – by any means necessary
  • Malcolm Little – Omaha, Nebraska
  • Converted to Nation of Islam – religious sect founded by Elijah Muhammad
  • Rules of strict behavior, no drugs or alcohol, separation of races.
  • Malcolm X – Nations most popular minister
  • Made pilgrimage to Mecca – changed his outlook
  • Feb 1965 – assassinated – 3 members of Nation of Islam convicted of his murder
black power
Black Power
  • Stokely Carmichael – SNCC leader
  • Began to question role of integration
  • Black Power movement
black panthers
Black Panthers
  • Huey Newton and Bobby Seal founded the Black Panthers
  • Organized armed patrols to protect people from police abuse
  • Created antipoverty programs
  • Afros
  • Black rather than negro or colored
slide39
MLK
  • Disagreed with calls for “black power” – still nonviolent
  • Campaign to protest poverty in cities
  • Traveled to Memphis, TN
  • April 4 – assassinated by James Earl Ray on the balcony of his motel.
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