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Introduction to Organization and Management. Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer [email protected] 089-9912087. The Characteristics of an Organization. Has a Distinct Purposes. Is Composed of People. Has a Deliberate Structure. Traditional Stable , inflexible Job focused Jobs define work

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introduction to organization and management

Introduction to OrganizationandManagement

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

the characteristics of an organization
The Characteristics of an Organization

Has a Distinct Purposes

Is Composed of People

Has a Deliberate Structure

the changing organization
Traditional

Stable , inflexible

Job focused

Jobs define work

Individual-oriented

Permanent jobs

Command-driven

Contemporary

Unstable , flexible

Skills focused

Tasks define work

Team-oriented

Temporary jobs

Involvement driven

The Changing Organization
slide4
Contemporary

Participative

Customer oriented

Diversity

No time boundaries

Lateral networks

Work anywhere

The Changing Organization

Traditional

  • Directive
  • Rule-oriented
  • Homogeneity
  • 9-5 workdays
  • Hierarchies
  • Work on-site
slide5

Top Managers

Mid-Level Managers

The Levels

of an

Organization

First-Line Managers

Operation Employees

slide6

Inputs and Outputs

Efficient

Management

Doing Things Rights

Low Resource Waste

Productivity

Goals and Objectives

Effective

Management

Doing The Right Things

High Goal Attainment

slide7

Planning

Organizing

Leading

Controlling

The Four

Function of

Management

slide8

Mintzberg’s

Management Roles

Interpersonal

Roles

Decisional

Roles

Informational

Roles

slide9

Skills That Managers Need

Conceptual

Top

Managers

Human

Middle

Managers

Technical

Middle

Managers

slide10

The Environment

The Open System

Transformation

-Management

-Employees

-Technology

-Operation

Outputs

-Products

-Service

-Profits

-Losses

  • Inputs
  • Materials
  • Capital
  • Labor
  • Data

Feedback

slide11

The Contingency Perspective

Organization Size

Task Technology

Environment Uncertainty

Individual Differences

slide12

Organizational

Type

Organizational

Level

Is the Manager’s

Job

Universal ?

Cross National

Transferability

Organizational

Size

why study management
Why Study Management ?
  • You should understand how organization are managed.
  • You will either manager or be managed.
theory and conceptual administration b

Theory and Conceptual Administration(B)

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

slide15
Historical Background

Of Management Theories

1 2 3

Early Adam Industrial

Example Smith Revolution

Egyptian Wealth Machine

Pyramids of Nation Power

Great Wall Division of Mass

of China Labor Production

slide16
Develop a science for each Select, train and develop

element of work workers

Taylor’s Four Principle of Management

Cooperate with works Divide work and

responsibility equally

general principle management taylor s
General Principle Management (Taylor’s)
  • Division of work
  • Authority and Responsibility
  • Discipline
  • Unity of Command
  • Unity of Direction
  • Subordination of Individual General Interest
general principle management taylor s18
General Principle Management (Taylor’s)
  • Remuneration
  • Centralization
  • Scalar Chain
  • Order
  • Equity
  • Stability of Tenure of Personnel
  • Initiative
  • Esprit de Corps
henry fayol
Henry Fayol

Management Function ( POCCC)

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Commanding
  • Coordinating
  • Controlling
max weber bureaucracy
Max Weber (Bureaucracy)
  • Division of Labour
  • Authority Hierarchy
  • Formal Selection
  • Formal Rules and Regulations
  • Impersonality
  • Career Orientation
slide21
Maslow (Malow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory)

Self-Actualization

Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

theories of leadership
Theories of Leadership

(Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders From Nonleaders)

  • Drive
  • Desire to lead
  • Honesty and integrity
  • Self-confidence
  • Intelligence
  • Job-relevant knowledge
trend and present administration in the future
Trend and Present Administration in the Future
  • Globalization
  • Workforce Diversity
  • Information Technology or IT
  • Continually Learning and Adaptive Org.
  • Total Quality Management or TQM
organizational culture and environment

Organizational Culture and Environment

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

slide25
What’s Cultures?

Organization Changing?

Organization Cultures Changing?

Cultures Changing

Rise Death

Continue Process

Normal Implementation Behavior

Popularity

Behavior Setting

Extensively Behavior

Cultures

Build or Change

Cultures

Forster

Popularity Change

slide26
How Should We View

The Role of Management?

The Omnipotent View

The Symbolic View

The Synthesis View

dimensions of organization
Dimensions of Organization
  • Innovation and Risk Taking
  • Attention to Detail
  • Outcome Orientation
  • People Orientation
  • Team Orientation
  • Aggressiveness
  • Stability
  • Non-Stability
slide28
Size of The Age of The

OrganizationOrganization

Strong Culture

Versus

Weak Culture

Intensity of Employee

Organization Culture Turnover

slide29
How Do Employees Learn About The Culture of an Organization?

Stories

Rituals

Material Symbols

Language

globalization managing the global environment organization and management

GlobalizationManaging The Global Environment(Organization and Management)

Songklot Phonpuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

companies with over 60 percent of revenue from non us operation
Companies With Over 60 Percent of Revenue From Non-US. Operation
  • Exxon __________________________________________________76.8
  • Colgate-Palmolive ________________________________71.6
  • Manpower ___________________________________________70.8
  • Mobil __________________________________________________ 67.2
  • Coca-Cola ____________________________________________67.1
  • Avon Products _____________________________________ 65.3
  • Digital Equipment _______________________________ 64.8
  • Gillette _______________________________________________ 63.1
  • IBM _____________________________________________________61.3
  • Citicorp _______________________________________________ 60.6
slide32
Three Attitudes Towards International Business

Ethnocentric

Polycentric

Geocentric

slide33
The Changing

Business Environment

Regional

Trading Alliances

European North American Association

Union Free Tread of Southeast

( EU ) Agreement Asian Nations

( NAFTA ) ( ASEAN )

slide34
Global Organization

The Changing

Business Environment

Global

Trading Alliances

Multinational Transnational Borderless

Corporations Corporations Organization

( MNC ) ( TNC )

slide35
How Organizations

Go International

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

Export to Hire Foreign Licensing

Foreign Agents or Franchising

Countries Brokers Contract Joint Venture Foreign Foreign

Managers Subsidiary

slide36
Managing in

A Foreign Country

Legal-Political Environment

Economic Environment

Culture Environment

slide37
Individualism Power

Versus Distance

Collectivism

Hofsted’s

Dimensions of

National Culture

Quantity Uncertainty

Versus Avoidance

Quality of Life

criteria for making global employee selection decision
Ability to adapt

Technical Skills

Spouse and Family

Human relations Skills

Desire to go Overseas

Overseas Experience

Knows host culture

Academic standing

Language Skills

Knows home culture

Criteria for Making GlobalEmployee Selection Decision
slide39
Factors Affecting

International Adjustment

Pre-Assignment Adjustment

Individual

Training Experience

Expectations

Organization

Selection Criteria and Mechanisms

slide40
Factor Affecting

International Adjustment

In-Country Adjustment

Individual Factors

Job Factors

Organization Culture

Organization Socialization

Nonworking Factors

slide42

The Decision-Making Process

Identification of a Problem

Identification of Decision Criteria

Allocation of Weights to Criteria

Development of Alternatives

Analysis of Alternatives

Selection of an Alternatives

Implementation of the Alternatives

Evaluation of Decision Effectiveness

slide43

Planning

  • What are the organization’s long-term objective?
  • What strategies will best achieve those objective?

- What should the organization’s short-term objectives be?

- How difficult should individual goals be?

Leading

  • How do I handle employees who appear to be low in motivation?
  • What is the most effective leadership style in a given situation?
  • How will a specific change affect worker productivity?

- When is the right time to stimulate conflict?

Decisions in the Management Function

slide44

Organizing

  • How many employees should I have report directly to me?
  • How much centralization should there be in the organization?
  • How should jobs be designed?
  • When should the organization implement a different structure?

Controlling

  • What activities in the organization need to be controlled?
  • How should those activities be controlled?
  • When is a performance deviation significant?
  • What type of management information system should the organization have?

Decisions in the Management Function

slide45

3 Alternatives

2 Target of Alternative

1 Identification of a

Problem

7 Decision

4 Objective

Setting

The Manager as

Decision Maker

6 Non-objections

5 Objective Certainty

slide46

Types of Problems and Decisions

Well-Structured Problems and Programmed Decisions

Poorly-Structured Problems and Non-programmed Decisions

Integration

slide47
High

Low

Rational Intuitive

Tolerance for Ambiguity

Way for Thinking

Decision-Making Styles

slide48

Decision-Making Biased and Errors

Overconfidence

Hindsight Immediate Gratification

Self-Serving Anchoring Effect

Sunk Costs Decision-Making Selective Perception

Randomness Errors and Biases Confirmation

Representation Framing

Availability

foundations of planning

Foundations of Planning

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

what s planning
What’s Planning?

- What’s To Be Done.

- How It’s To Be Done.

PLANNING…

Formal Planning Informal Planning

purpose of planning
Purpose of Planning

Planning Gives Direction

Coordinate

Cooperate

Planning Reduces Uncertainty

Planning Reduces Overlapping and Wasteful Activities

Planning Sets the Standard Used in Controlling

the role of goals and plans in planning
The Role of Goals and Plans in Planning

Goals

Goals are Objectives

Plans

types of goals
Types of Goals

Social Responsibility

Profits Market Shared

- Financial Goals & Strategic Goals

- Stated Goals & Real Goals

types of plans
Types of Plans

Breadth Time Frame SpecificityFrequency of Use

Strategic Long term Directional Single use

Operational Short term Specific Standing

contingency factors in planning
Contingency Factors in Planning
  • Manager’s Level

- Strategic Planning

- Operational Planning

2. Environmental Uncertainty

- Specific

- Flexible

3. Time Frame of the Plans

planning in the hierarchy of organizations
Planning in the Hierarchy of Organizations

Strategic

Planning Top

Executives

Middle-Level

Managers

Operational First-Level

Planning Managers

effective planning in dynamic environments
Effective Planning in Dynamic Environments

Specific But Flexible

Ongoing Process

Change Direction if Environmental Conditions Changed

Stay Alert to Environmental Changes

strategic management

Strategic Management

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

why is strategic management important
Why is Strategic Management Important?

External Analysis

-opportunities

-threats

Identify the

organization’s SWOT AnalysisFormulate Implement Evaluate

current mission, goals, Strategies Strategies Results

and strategies

Internal Analysis

-strengths

-weaknesses

The Strategie Management Process

slide60
Multibusiness

Corporation

Strategic Strategic Strategic Business Unit 1 Business Unit 2 Business Unit 3

Research and Manufacturing Marketing Human Finance

Development Resources

Corporate

Business

Functional

Types of Organizational Strategy

slide61
Corporate Level Strategy

Direction

Mission

Vision

Growth Strategy

Stability Strategy

Renewal

Concentration

Growth Strategy Vertical and Horizontal Integration

Diversification

slide62
Corporate Level Strategy

Growth Strategy

Stability Strategy

Renewal

Stability Strategy Pause/Proceed with Caution Strategy

No Change Strategy

Profit Strategy

slide63
Corporate Level Strategy

Growth Strategy

Stability Strategy

Renewal

Retrenchment Strategy

Renewal

Turnaround Strategy

slide64
Business Level Strategy

The Role of Competitive Advantage

- Distinctive Competencies

- Competitive Advantage

- Competitive Differentiation

- Cost Leadership

- Focus

Competitive Advantage Strategies

Cost Leadership Strategy Differentiation Strategy

Focus Strategy

slide65
Functional Level Strategy

Research and Development

Manufacturing

Marketing

Finance

Human Resources

slide66

Human Resource Management

Songklot Phonphuak

[email protected]

089-9912087

slide67

Human Resource

Planning

Identify and Select

Competent Employees

Recruitment

Selection

Decruitment

Provide employees

with up-to-date

skills and knowledge

Orientation

Training

Performance

Management

Compensation

and

Benefits

Career

Development

Retain competent and

high-performing employee

"Human Resource Management Process"

slide68

Human Resource Planning

1. Current Assessment

- Human Resource Inventory

- Job Analysis

- Job Description

- Job Specification

2. Future Human Resource Needs

slide69

Recruitment or Decruitment

1. Recruitment

> Internet

> Employee referrals

> Company Web site

> College recruiting

2. Decruitment

> Downsizing

> Layoffs

> Transfers

> Reduced workweeks

Advantage and Disadvantage

slide70

Selection

Selection Decision

< Correct > / < Errors >

^Correct^

- Successfull Accepted

- Unsuccessfull Rejected

^Errors^

- Reject

- Accept

slide71

Types of Selection Devices

> Application Forms

> Written Tests

> Performances-Simulation Tests

> Interview

> Background Investigation

> Physical Examination

slide72

Orientation

Work Unit Orientation

Organization Orientation

slide73

Employee Training

1. Technical Skill

2. Interpersonal Skill

3. Problem Solving Skills

slide74

Employee Performance Management

- Written Essays

- Critical Incidents

- Graphic Rating Scales

- Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale

- Multiple Comparison

- 360 Degree Feedback

slide75

Compensation and Benefits

1. Job Based

2. Business or Industry Based

3. Skill Based

slide77

Current Issues in Human Resource Management

1. Managing Downsizing

2. Managing Workforce Diversity

3. Sexual Harassment

4. Workplace Romances

5. Work-Family Life Banlace

6. Controlling HR Costs

slide78

Managing Change and Innovation

Songklot Phonphuak...Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

slide79

Forces for Change

External Forces

Internal Forces

- Marketplace

- Governmental Laws and Regulations

- Technology

- Labor Market

- Economic

- Operations of the Organization

> Strategy

> New Equipment

> Employee Attitude

slide80

Two Views of the Change Process

1. Unfreezing

2. Changing

3. Refreezing

Unfreezing

Changing

Refreezing

slide81

Managing Change

Work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command

span of control, centralization, formalization, job redesign, or

actual structural design.

Structure

Work processed, methods, and equipment.

Technology

Attitudes, expectations, perceptions,

and behavior-individual and group.

People

slide82

Sensitivity

Training

Surver

Feedback

Team

Building

MORE

EFFECTIVE

INTERPERSONAL

WORK

RELATIONSHIPS

Process

Consultation

Intergroup

Development

Organizational Develoment Techniques

slide83

Stimulating Innovation

Creativity Innovation

Inputs

Transformation

Outputs

Creative Individuals,

groups,

Organizations

Creative environment,

processs, situation

Innovative product (s),

work methods

Systems View of Innovation

slide84

Variables that Stimulate Innovation

Structural Variables

- Organic Structures

- Abundant Resources

- Hight Interunit

Communication

- Minimal Time Pressure

-Work and Nonwork Support

Human Resource Variables

- High Commitment to

Training and Development

- Hight Job Security

- Creative People

STIMULATE

INNOVATION

Cultural Variables

- Acceptance of Ambiguity

- Tolerance of the Impractical

- Low External Controls

- Tolerance of Conflict

- Focus on Ends

- Open-System Focus

- Positive Feedback

slide85

Leadership

Songklot Phonphuak...Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087

slide86

seven traits associated with leadership

1. drive. leader exhibit a high effort level.

they have a relatively high desire

for achievement.

2. desire to lead. leaders have a strong desire to influence

and lead others. they demonstrate

the willingness

to take responsibility.

3. honesty and integrity. leaders build trusting relationships

between themselve and followers

by being truthful or nodeceitful

and by showing high consistency

betwenn word and deed.

slide87

seven traits associated with leadership

4. self-confidence. followers look to leaders

for an absence of self-doubt.

need to show self-confidence in order to

convince followers of the

rightess of their goals and decisions.

5. intelligence. leaders need to be intellignt

enough to gather, synthesize, and

interpret large amounts of information.

6. job-relevant knowledge. dffective leaders have a high degree of knowledge

about the company, industry, and

technical matters.

7. extraversion. leaders are energetic, lively people.

they are sociable, assertive, and

rarely silent or withdrawn.

slide88
Behavioral Dimension Conclusion

University of IowaDemocratic style: involving subordinates, delegating Democratic style of leadership was

authority, and encouraging participation most effective, although later studies

Autocratic style: dictating work methods, showed mixed results.

centralizing decision making, and limiting participation

Laissez-fairs style: giving group freedom to work

make decisions and complete work

Ohio State Consideration: being considerate of followers’ High-high leader (high in consideration

ideas and feelings and high in initiating structure) Initiating structure: structuring work and work achieved high subordinate

relationships to meet job goals performance and satisfaction, but not

in all situations.

behavioral theories of leadership

slide89

Behavioral Dimension Conclusion

.University ofEmployee-oriented: emphasized interpersonal Employee-oriented leaders were

Michigan relationships and taking care of employees’ associated with high group productivity

needs and higher job satisfaction.

Production-oriented: emphasized technical

or task aspects of job

Managerial GridConcern for people: measured leader’s Leaders performed best with a 9.9

concern for subordinates on a scale of style (high concern for production and

1 to 9 (low to high) high concern for people).

Concern for production: measured leader’s

concern for getting job done on a scale of

1 to 9 (low to high)

behavioral theories of leadership

slide90

Country Club

Management

Theoughtful attention

to needs of people for

satisfying relationship

leads to a comfortable,

friendly organization

atmosphere and

work tempo.

Team Management

Work accomplished is

from commetted people;

interdependence through

a "common stak" in

organization purpose

leads to relationships

of trust and respect.

The Managerial Grid

High

9

8

7

Middle-of-the-Road

Management

Adequate organization

performance is possible

through balancing the

necessity to get out work

with maintaining morale

of people at a satisfactory

level.

6

Concern for people

5

4

3

2

1

Low

Task Management

Efficiency in operations

results from arraging

conditions of work in

such a way that human

elements interfere to

a minimum degree.

Impoverished

Management

Exertion of minimum

effort to get required

work done is appropriate

to sustain organization

membership.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Low

Concern for production

High

slide91

Cutting-edge approaches to leadership

1. Transformational Leadership

2. Transactional Leaders

3. Charismatic-Visionary Leadership

4. Team Leadership

- Liaison with Exteranl Constituencies

- Troubleshooter

- Coach

- Conflict Management

slide92

Leadership Issues in the

Twenty-First Century

1. Legitimate Power

2. Coerive Power

3. Reward Power

4. Expert Power

5. Referent Power

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