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Introduction to Organization and Management. Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer [email protected] 089-9912087. The Characteristics of an Organization. Has a Distinct Purposes. Is Composed of People. Has a Deliberate Structure. Traditional Stable , inflexible Job focused Jobs define work

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Introduction to OrganizationandManagement

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


The Characteristics of an Organization

Has a Distinct Purposes

Is Composed of People

Has a Deliberate Structure


Traditional

Stable , inflexible

Job focused

Jobs define work

Individual-oriented

Permanent jobs

Command-driven

Contemporary

Unstable , flexible

Skills focused

Tasks define work

Team-oriented

Temporary jobs

Involvement driven

The Changing Organization


Contemporary

Participative

Customer oriented

Diversity

No time boundaries

Lateral networks

Work anywhere

The Changing Organization

Traditional

  • Directive

  • Rule-oriented

  • Homogeneity

  • 9-5 workdays

  • Hierarchies

  • Work on-site


Top Managers

Mid-Level Managers

The Levels

of an

Organization

First-Line Managers

Operation Employees


Inputs and Outputs

Efficient

Management

Doing Things Rights

Low Resource Waste

Productivity

Goals and Objectives

Effective

Management

Doing The Right Things

High Goal Attainment


Planning

Organizing

Leading

Controlling

The Four

Function of

Management


Mintzberg’s

Management Roles

Interpersonal

Roles

Decisional

Roles

Informational

Roles


Skills That Managers Need

Conceptual

Top

Managers

Human

Middle

Managers

Technical

Middle

Managers


The Environment

The Open System

Transformation

-Management

-Employees

-Technology

-Operation

Outputs

-Products

-Service

-Profits

-Losses

  • Inputs

  • Materials

  • Capital

  • Labor

  • Data

Feedback


The Contingency Perspective

Organization Size

Task Technology

Environment Uncertainty

Individual Differences


Organizational

Type

Organizational

Level

Is the Manager’s

Job

Universal ?

Cross National

Transferability

Organizational

Size


Why Study Management ?

  • You should understand how organization are managed.

  • You will either manager or be managed.


Theory and Conceptual Administration(B)

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


Historical Background

Of Management Theories

1 2 3

Early Adam Industrial

Example Smith Revolution

Egyptian Wealth Machine

Pyramids of Nation Power

Great Wall Division of Mass

of China Labor Production


Develop a science for each Select, train and develop

element of work workers

Taylor’s Four Principle of Management

Cooperate with works Divide work and

responsibility equally


General Principle Management (Taylor’s)

  • Division of work

  • Authority and Responsibility

  • Discipline

  • Unity of Command

  • Unity of Direction

  • Subordination of Individual General Interest


General Principle Management (Taylor’s)

  • Remuneration

  • Centralization

  • Scalar Chain

  • Order

  • Equity

  • Stability of Tenure of Personnel

  • Initiative

  • Esprit de Corps


Henry Fayol

Management Function ( POCCC)

  • Planning

  • Organizing

  • Commanding

  • Coordinating

  • Controlling


Max Weber (Bureaucracy)

  • Division of Labour

  • Authority Hierarchy

  • Formal Selection

  • Formal Rules and Regulations

  • Impersonality

  • Career Orientation


Maslow (Malow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory)

Self-Actualization

Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs


Theories of Leadership

(Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders From Nonleaders)

  • Drive

  • Desire to lead

  • Honesty and integrity

  • Self-confidence

  • Intelligence

  • Job-relevant knowledge


Trend and Present Administration in the Future

  • Globalization

  • Workforce Diversity

  • Information Technology or IT

  • Continually Learning and Adaptive Org.

  • Total Quality Management or TQM


Organizational Culture and Environment

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


What’s Cultures?

Organization Changing?

Organization Cultures Changing?

Cultures Changing

Rise Death

Continue Process

Normal Implementation Behavior

Popularity

Behavior Setting

Extensively Behavior

Cultures

Build or Change

Cultures

Forster

Popularity Change


How Should We View

The Role of Management?

The Omnipotent View

The Symbolic View

The Synthesis View


Dimensions of Organization

  • Innovation and Risk Taking

  • Attention to Detail

  • Outcome Orientation

  • People Orientation

  • Team Orientation

  • Aggressiveness

  • Stability

  • Non-Stability


Size of The Age of The

OrganizationOrganization

Strong Culture

Versus

Weak Culture

Intensity of Employee

Organization Culture Turnover


How Do Employees Learn About The Culture of an Organization?

Stories

Rituals

Material Symbols

Language


GlobalizationManaging The Global Environment(Organization and Management)

Songklot Phonpuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


Companies With Over 60 Percent of Revenue From Non-US. Operation

  • Exxon __________________________________________________76.8

  • Colgate-Palmolive ________________________________71.6

  • Manpower ___________________________________________70.8

  • Mobil __________________________________________________ 67.2

  • Coca-Cola ____________________________________________67.1

  • Avon Products _____________________________________ 65.3

  • Digital Equipment _______________________________ 64.8

  • Gillette _______________________________________________ 63.1

  • IBM _____________________________________________________61.3

  • Citicorp _______________________________________________ 60.6


Three Attitudes Towards International Business

Ethnocentric

Polycentric

Geocentric


The Changing

Business Environment

Regional

Trading Alliances

European North American Association

Union Free Tread of Southeast

( EU ) Agreement Asian Nations

( NAFTA ) ( ASEAN )


Global Organization

The Changing

Business Environment

Global

Trading Alliances

Multinational Transnational Borderless

Corporations Corporations Organization

( MNC ) ( TNC )


How Organizations

Go International

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

Export to Hire Foreign Licensing

Foreign Agents or Franchising

Countries Brokers Contract Joint Venture Foreign Foreign

Managers Subsidiary


Managing in

A Foreign Country

Legal-Political Environment

Economic Environment

Culture Environment


Individualism Power

Versus Distance

Collectivism

Hofsted’s

Dimensions of

National Culture

Quantity Uncertainty

Versus Avoidance

Quality of Life


Ability to adapt

Technical Skills

Spouse and Family

Human relations Skills

Desire to go Overseas

Overseas Experience

Knows host culture

Academic standing

Language Skills

Knows home culture

Criteria for Making GlobalEmployee Selection Decision


Factors Affecting

International Adjustment

Pre-Assignment Adjustment

Individual

Training Experience

Expectations

Organization

Selection Criteria and Mechanisms


Factor Affecting

International Adjustment

In-Country Adjustment

Individual Factors

Job Factors

Organization Culture

Organization Socialization

Nonworking Factors


Decision Making : The Essence of the Managers’ Job

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

089-9912087

[email protected]


The Decision-Making Process

Identification of a Problem

Identification of Decision Criteria

Allocation of Weights to Criteria

Development of Alternatives

Analysis of Alternatives

Selection of an Alternatives

Implementation of the Alternatives

Evaluation of Decision Effectiveness


Planning

  • What are the organization’s long-term objective?

  • What strategies will best achieve those objective?

    - What should the organization’s short-term objectives be?

    -How difficult should individual goals be?

Leading

  • How do I handle employees who appear to be low in motivation?

  • What is the most effective leadership style in a given situation?

  • How will a specific change affect worker productivity?

    -When is the right time to stimulate conflict?

Decisions in the Management Function


Organizing

  • How many employees should I have report directly to me?

  • How much centralization should there be in the organization?

  • How should jobs be designed?

  • When should the organization implement a different structure?

Controlling

  • What activities in the organization need to be controlled?

  • How should those activities be controlled?

  • When is a performance deviation significant?

  • What type of management information system should the organization have?

Decisions in the Management Function


3 Alternatives

2 Target of Alternative

1 Identification of a

Problem

7 Decision

4 Objective

Setting

The Manager as

Decision Maker

6 Non-objections

5 Objective Certainty


Types of Problems and Decisions

Well-Structured Problems and Programmed Decisions

Poorly-Structured Problems and Non-programmed Decisions

Integration


High

Low

Rational Intuitive

Tolerance for Ambiguity

Way for Thinking

Decision-Making Styles


Decision-Making Biased and Errors

Overconfidence

Hindsight Immediate Gratification

Self-Serving Anchoring Effect

Sunk Costs Decision-Making Selective Perception

Randomness Errors and Biases Confirmation

Representation Framing

Availability


Foundations of Planning

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


What’s Planning?

- What’s To Be Done.

- How It’s To Be Done.

PLANNING…

Formal Planning Informal Planning


Purpose of Planning

Planning Gives Direction

Coordinate

Cooperate

Planning Reduces Uncertainty

Planning Reduces Overlapping and Wasteful Activities

Planning Sets the Standard Used in Controlling


The Role of Goals and Plans in Planning

Goals

Goals are Objectives

Plans


Types of Goals

Social Responsibility

Profits Market Shared

- Financial Goals & Strategic Goals

- Stated Goals & Real Goals


Types of Plans

Breadth Time Frame SpecificityFrequency of Use

Strategic Long term Directional Single use

Operational Short term Specific Standing


Contingency Factors in Planning

  • Manager’s Level

    - Strategic Planning

    - Operational Planning

    2. Environmental Uncertainty

    - Specific

    - Flexible

    3. Time Frame of the Plans


Planning in the Hierarchy of Organizations

Strategic

PlanningTop

Executives

Middle-Level

Managers

Operational First-Level

Planning Managers


Effective Planning in Dynamic Environments

Specific But Flexible

Ongoing Process

Change Direction if Environmental Conditions Changed

Stay Alert to Environmental Changes


Strategic Management

Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


Why is Strategic Management Important?

External Analysis

-opportunities

-threats

Identify the

organization’s SWOT AnalysisFormulate Implement Evaluate

current mission, goals, Strategies Strategies Results

and strategies

Internal Analysis

-strengths

-weaknesses

The Strategie Management Process


Multibusiness

Corporation

Strategic Strategic Strategic Business Unit 1 Business Unit 2 Business Unit 3

Research and Manufacturing Marketing Human Finance

Development Resources

Corporate

Business

Functional

Types of Organizational Strategy


Corporate Level Strategy

Direction

Mission

Vision

Growth Strategy

Stability Strategy

Renewal

Concentration

Growth Strategy Vertical and Horizontal Integration

Diversification


Corporate Level Strategy

Growth Strategy

Stability Strategy

Renewal

Stability Strategy Pause/Proceed with Caution Strategy

No Change Strategy

Profit Strategy


Corporate Level Strategy

Growth Strategy

Stability Strategy

Renewal

Retrenchment Strategy

Renewal

Turnaround Strategy


Business Level Strategy

The Role of Competitive Advantage

- Distinctive Competencies

- Competitive Advantage

- Competitive Differentiation

- Cost Leadership

- Focus

Competitive Advantage Strategies

Cost Leadership Strategy Differentiation Strategy

Focus Strategy


Functional Level Strategy

Research and Development

Manufacturing

Marketing

Finance

Human Resources


Human Resource Management

Songklot Phonphuak

[email protected]

089-9912087


Human Resource

Planning

Identify and Select

Competent Employees

Recruitment

Selection

Decruitment

Provide employees

with up-to-date

skills and knowledge

Orientation

Training

Performance

Management

Compensation

and

Benefits

Career

Development

Retain competent and

high-performing employee

"Human Resource Management Process"


Human Resource Planning

1. Current Assessment

- Human Resource Inventory

- Job Analysis

- Job Description

- Job Specification

2. Future Human Resource Needs


Recruitment or Decruitment

1. Recruitment

> Internet

> Employee referrals

> Company Web site

> College recruiting

2. Decruitment

> Downsizing

> Layoffs

> Transfers

> Reduced workweeks

Advantage and Disadvantage


Selection

Selection Decision

< Correct > / < Errors >

^Correct^

- Successfull Accepted

- Unsuccessfull Rejected

^Errors^

- Reject

- Accept


Types of Selection Devices

> Application Forms

> Written Tests

> Performances-Simulation Tests

> Interview

> Background Investigation

> Physical Examination


Orientation

Work Unit Orientation

Organization Orientation


Employee Training

1. Technical Skill

2. Interpersonal Skill

3. Problem Solving Skills


Employee Performance Management

- Written Essays

- Critical Incidents

- Graphic Rating Scales

- Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale

- Multiple Comparison

- 360 Degree Feedback


Compensation and Benefits

1. Job Based

2. Business or Industry Based

3. Skill Based


Career Development


Current Issues in Human Resource Management

1. Managing Downsizing

2. Managing Workforce Diversity

3. Sexual Harassment

4. Workplace Romances

5. Work-Family Life Banlace

6. Controlling HR Costs


Managing Change and Innovation

Songklot Phonphuak...Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


Forces for Change

External Forces

Internal Forces

- Marketplace

- Governmental Laws and Regulations

- Technology

- Labor Market

- Economic

- Operations of the Organization

> Strategy

> New Equipment

> Employee Attitude


Two Views of the Change Process

1. Unfreezing

2. Changing

3. Refreezing

Unfreezing

Changing

Refreezing


Managing Change

Work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command

span of control, centralization, formalization, job redesign, or

actual structural design.

Structure

Work processed, methods, and equipment.

Technology

Attitudes, expectations, perceptions,

and behavior-individual and group.

People


Sensitivity

Training

Surver

Feedback

Team

Building

MORE

EFFECTIVE

INTERPERSONAL

WORK

RELATIONSHIPS

Process

Consultation

Intergroup

Development

Organizational Develoment Techniques


Stimulating Innovation

Creativity Innovation

Inputs

Transformation

Outputs

Creative Individuals,

groups,

Organizations

Creative environment,

processs, situation

Innovative product (s),

work methods

Systems View of Innovation


Variables that Stimulate Innovation

Structural Variables

- Organic Structures

- Abundant Resources

- Hight Interunit

Communication

- Minimal Time Pressure

-Work and Nonwork Support

Human Resource Variables

- High Commitment to

Training and Development

- Hight Job Security

- Creative People

STIMULATE

INNOVATION

Cultural Variables

- Acceptance of Ambiguity

- Tolerance of the Impractical

- Low External Controls

- Tolerance of Conflict

- Focus on Ends

- Open-System Focus

- Positive Feedback


Leadership

Songklot Phonphuak...Lecturer

[email protected]

089-9912087


seven traits associated with leadership

1. drive. leader exhibit a high effort level.

they have a relatively high desire

for achievement.

2. desire to lead. leaders have a strong desire to influence

and lead others. they demonstrate

the willingness

to take responsibility.

3. honesty and integrity. leaders build trusting relationships

between themselve and followers

by being truthful or nodeceitful

and by showing high consistency

betwenn word and deed.


seven traits associated with leadership

4. self-confidence. followers look to leaders

for an absence of self-doubt.

need to show self-confidence in order to

convince followers of the

rightess of their goals and decisions.

5. intelligence. leaders need to be intellignt

enough to gather, synthesize, and

interpret large amounts of information.

6. job-relevant knowledge. dffective leaders have a high degree of knowledge

about the company, industry, and

technical matters.

7. extraversion. leaders are energetic, lively people.

they are sociable, assertive, and

rarely silent or withdrawn.


Behavioral DimensionConclusion

University of IowaDemocratic style: involving subordinates, delegating Democratic style of leadership was

authority, and encouraging participation most effective, although later studies

Autocratic style: dictating work methods, showed mixed results.

centralizing decision making, and limiting participation

Laissez-fairs style: giving group freedom to work

make decisions and complete work

Ohio StateConsideration: being considerate of followers’ High-high leader (high in consideration

ideas and feelings and high in initiating structure) Initiating structure: structuring work and work achieved high subordinate

relationships to meet job goals performance and satisfaction, but not

in all situations.

behavioral theories of leadership


Behavioral DimensionConclusion

.University ofEmployee-oriented: emphasized interpersonal Employee-oriented leaders were

Michiganrelationships and taking care of employees’ associated with high group productivity

needs and higher job satisfaction.

Production-oriented: emphasized technical

or task aspects of job

Managerial GridConcern for people: measured leader’s Leaders performed best with a 9.9

concern for subordinates on a scale of style (high concern for production and

1 to 9 (low to high) high concern for people).

Concern for production: measured leader’s

concern for getting job done on a scale of

1 to 9 (low to high)

behavioral theories of leadership


Country Club

Management

Theoughtful attention

to needs of people for

satisfying relationship

leads to a comfortable,

friendly organization

atmosphere and

work tempo.

Team Management

Work accomplished is

from commetted people;

interdependence through

a "common stak" in

organization purpose

leads to relationships

of trust and respect.

The Managerial Grid

High

9

8

7

Middle-of-the-Road

Management

Adequate organization

performance is possible

through balancing the

necessity to get out work

with maintaining morale

of people at a satisfactory

level.

6

Concern for people

5

4

3

2

1

Low

Task Management

Efficiency in operations

results from arraging

conditions of work in

such a way that human

elements interfere to

a minimum degree.

Impoverished

Management

Exertion of minimum

effort to get required

work done is appropriate

to sustain organization

membership.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Low

Concern for production

High


Cutting-edge approaches to leadership

1. Transformational Leadership

2. Transactional Leaders

3. Charismatic-Visionary Leadership

4. Team Leadership

- Liaison with Exteranl Constituencies

- Troubleshooter

- Coach

- Conflict Management


Leadership Issues in the

Twenty-First Century

1. Legitimate Power

2. Coerive Power

3. Reward Power

4. Expert Power

5. Referent Power


Gender Differences and Leadership


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