Fish impingement and survival on fish friendly traveling water screens
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Fish Impingement and Survival on “Fish Friendly” Traveling Water Screens. Justin B. Mitchell APC Compliance Studies. Alabama Water Resources Association Conference Orange Beach, Alabama September 07, 2012. Introduction.

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Fish Impingement and Survival on “Fish Friendly”Traveling Water Screens

Justin B. Mitchell

APC Compliance Studies

Alabama Water Resources Association Conference

Orange Beach, Alabama

September 07, 2012


Introduction

Impingement- The death of fish and aquatic organisms that are pinned on the cooling water intake structure (CWIS).


Impingement


Proposed Impingement Rule

  • Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    • Withdraw >2 MGD from waters of the US

    • >25% used for cooling purposes

  • Primary Compliance Options:

  • Cooling Towers

  • Intake velocity <0.5 fps

  • Traveling Screen Modifications and Biological Monitoring

    • Fish Buckets

    • Fish Return System

    • 48 hr Mortality Limit Criteria:

      Average annual mortality rate <12%

      Monthly maximum mortality rate <31%


Gorgas Steam Plant

  • Walker County, AL

  • Black Warrior River (Mulberry Fork)

  • 1,200 MW

  • 5 generating units

  • FGD (scrubber)

  • 2 separate CWIS

    • Units 6-7

    • Units 8-10


Gorgas Approach

SSI Band Screen Retrofit

  • Cost effective, $1.3M

  • Operationally feasible

  • Moribund fish (i.e. fish health) exceptions

  • Entrapment

  • Can this technology achieve the mortality limits?


Modified Band Screen with Fish Buckets


Low and High Pressure Spray

Fish Trough

Debris Trough

Intake Flow


Fish Return and Aquaria System


Study Objectives

  • Characterize Fish Impingement Rates

    • Debris trough

    • Fish trough

  • Evaluate Screen Operational Efficiency

  • Investigate 48 hr Latent Impingement Mortality

  • Examine Rates of Sick or Moribund Fish


Impingement SamplesCollected to Date

  • Fish Return Trough

    Debris Trough

  • 3 8-hr sample/day

    • Day

    • Evening

    • Night

  • 4 days/week (Jan-Feb)

  • 2 days/biweek (Mar-Jun)

  • Total Samples = 72 8-hr samples/trough


Species Diversity

  • 5,300 fish

  • 30 species

  • 11 families

  • Recreationally Important spp.

  • Fragile spp.


Common Species


Shad & Non-shad Composition

80%

0.9%

8%

11%


Fish Separation

92.5%

87.6%

7.4%

12.4%


Survivability Experimental Design

  • Biweekly Impingement

    Fish Return Trough only

  • Fish Collection

    2 days/week

  • 48 Hourly Latent Impingement Mortality (LIM) Observations


Other Study Components

  • Water Quality

    • Intake

    • Aquaria system

  • CWIS Flow

    • Circ Pumps On, Unit offline

  • Intake Velocity

  • Weather and River

    Flow conditions


24 and 48 hrLatent Impingement Mortality


Fish Health Diagnosis


Preliminary Conclusions

  • Impingement comprised mostly of shad

  • 24 hr and 48 hr Impingement Mortality > 12% Limit

    • Shad (89-100%)

    • Non-shad (20-60%)

  • Disease prevalence among all survival categories

  • LIM studies are time and labor intensive

  • Future Research: Explore ways to optimize impingement survival


Questions?

Justin Mitchell

(205)664-6184

[email protected]


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